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Drugs and Health Products

Traditional Chinese Medicine Ingredients (TCMI) - Under Consultation

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This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLAs) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient.

Notes

  • By submitting a PLA referencing this monograph, the applicant is attesting that the product will comply fully with the recommended conditions of use outlined in this monograph, including, the conditions found in the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) referenced texts (those provided in the reference section below). The conditions of use include methods of preparations, source materials, doses, durations of use, combinations of medicinal ingredients, risk statements, and the theory of TCM.
  • Text in parentheses is additional optional information which can be included on the PLA and product label at the applicant's discretion.
  • The solidus (/) indicates that the terms and/or the statements are synonymous. Either term or statement may be selected by the applicant.

Date

June 9, 2015

Medicinal Ingredients

  • Refer to Tables 1 and 2 in Appendix I for lists of acceptable medicinal ingredients.
  • Refer to Table 3 in Appendix I for medicinal ingredients that are only allowable when prepared according to the specifications outlined in the Natural Health Product Ingredient Database (NHPID).
  • Refer to Table 4 in Appendix I for medicinal ingredients excluded from this monograph.

Proper name(s) and Common name(s)

Refer to Appendix I for lists of acceptable proper name(s) and common name(s).

Source material(s)

As specified by referenced texts.

Brand name(s)

The brand name(s) must not be false or misleading or imply any specific use or purpose.

Route(s) of administration

  • The route(s) of administration must be consistent with the routes of administration specified by referenced texts.
  • Refer to Appendix II for examples of acceptable routes of administration.
  • Acceptable routes of administration for Natural Health Products (NHPs) are specified in the NHPID.

Dosage form(s)

  • Those pharmaceutical dosage forms suited to the allowable route(s) of administration.
  • Refer to Appendix II for examples of acceptable dosage forms.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of
Single ingredient products and products whose combination of ingredients is identical to a base formula in the referenced text

Remedy/Product/Preparation based on the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Products whose combination of ingredients is not identical to a base formula in the referenced text

Combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine Ingredients.

Unacceptable Combinations
  • Ingredients from Table 2 (Appendix I) may not be combined together unless combined according to a base formula from a referenced text.
  • Ingredients from Table 2 (Appendix I) with diuretic and/or stimulant laxative properties may not be combined with the medicinal ingredient Gan cao (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. inflata, G. uralensis) due to potential of electrolyte imbalance.
  • Ingredients indicated as mutually incompatible or antagonistic in the referenced texts should not be combined.

Dose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of

Subpopulation(s)

Adults (≥ 18 years)
Quantity(ies)
The quantity(ies) must be within the daily dosage range specified by referenced texts, considering additive effects between ingredients of similar actions or properties.
Method of preparation
  • The method of preparation must be consistent with preparations and methods of processing used in the practice and outlined in a referenced text.
  • When the reference dosage is for a powder, the ingredient may be present as a powder or the dose could be extrapolated for a hydroethanolic extract.
  • When the reference dosage is for a decoction, the ingredient must be present as a decoction.
  • Where the preparation method utilizes a solvent, the same solvent must be used.

Recommended conditions of use

Single ingredient products and products whose combination of ingredients is identical to a base formula in a referenced text

Where recommended conditions of use differ between referenced texts, it is the responsibility of the applicant to determine the most appropriate risk statements, directions and duration of use statements that should be included on the PLA form. Additional risk statements, directions and duration of use statements specified by referenced texts must also be included.

Products whose combination of ingredients is not identical to a base formula in a referenced text

When a product is not derived from a base formula from a referenced text, it is the responsibility of the applicant to determine, for each of the medicinal ingredients in the product, whether the risk statements, directions and duration of use statements indicated on the Natural and Non-Prescription Health Products Directorate (NNHPD) monographs and/or referenced texts should be included on the PLA form. Risk information from the various sources can be combined.

Duration of use

Statement(s) to the effect of

For prolonged use, consult a health care practitioner.

Risk information

Statement(s) to the effect of

Caution(s) and warning(s)

  • If symptoms persist or worsen, or if new symptoms develop, discontinue use and consult a health care practitioner.
  • If you are taking prescription medications, consult a health care practitioner prior to use.

Contraindication(s)

If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, do not use this product.

Known adverse reaction(s)

As specified by referenced texts.

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database (NHPID) and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Storage conditions

As specified by referenced texts.

Specifications

Referenced texts

  • Bensky D, Clavey, Stöger E, Gamble A. Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. 3rd edition. Seattle (WA): Eastland Press, Incorporated; 2004.
  • Chen JK, Chen TT. Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology. Crampton L, editor. City of Industry (CA): Art of Medicine Press Inc.; 2004.
  • Chen JK, Chen TT. Chinese Herbal Formulas and Applications : pharmacological effects & clinical research. City of Industry, Calif: Art of Medicine Press; 2009.
  • PPRC 2010: Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Volume 1, English edition 2010. Beijing (CN): The State Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People's Republic of China.
  • Scheid V, Bensky D, Ellis A, Barolet R. Chinese herbal medicine : formulas & strategies. 2nd edition. Seattle (WA): Eastland Press; 2009.

Appendix 1

Table 1: General Medicinal Ingredients
Proper (species) Name Common (pinyin) Name Pharmacopoeial Name*

Table 1 Footnotes

Table 1 Footnote 1

The Pharmacopoeial name is the ingredient name found in the NHPID.

Return to Table 1 footnote * referrer

Table 1 Footnote 2

Products providing more than 1 g of Piper longum are excluded from this monograph

Return to Table 1 footnote ** referrer

Abrus cantoniensis Ji gu cao Herba Abri
Achyranthes bidentata Niu xi Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae
Achyranthes aspera Tu niu xi Radix Achyranthes Longifolia
Achyranthes longifolia Tu niu xi Radix Achyranthes Longifolia
Actaea dahurica Sheng ma Rhizoma Cimicifugae
Actaea foetida Sheng ma Rhizoma Cimicifugae
Actaea heracleifolia Sheng ma Rhizoma Cimicifugae
Adenophora triphylla Nan sha shen Radix Adenophorae
Agastache rugosa Tu huo xiang Herba Agastaches
Agrimonia pilosa Xian he cao Herba Agrimoniae
Ailanthus altissima Chun gen Radix Ailanthi
Ailanthus altissima Chun gen pi Cortex Ailanthi
Akebia quinata Mu tong Caulis Akebiae
Akebia trifoliata Mu tong Caulis Akebiae
Albizia julibrissin He huan pi Cortex Albiziae
Albizia julibrissin He huan hua Flos Albiziae
Allium fistulosum Cong bai Bulbus Allii Fistulosi
Allium macrostemon Xie bai Bulbus Allii Macrostemonis
Allium tuberosum Jiu cai zi Semen Allii Tuberosi
Alpinia hainanensis Cao dou kou Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai
Alpinia oxyphylla Yi zhi Fructus Alpiniae Oxyphyllae
Amomum compactum Dou kou; Bai dou kou Fructus Amomi Rotundus
Amomum krervanh Dou kou; Bai dou kou Fructus Amomi Rotundus
Amomum villosum Sha ren Fructus Amomi
Anadara broughtonii Wa leng zi Concha Arcae
Anadara sativa Wa leng zi Concha Arcae
Andrographis paniculata Chuan xin lian Herba Andrographis
Anemarrhena asphodeloides Zhi mu Rhizoma Anemarrhenae
Anemone altaica Jiu jie chang pu Rhizoma Anemones Altaicae
Anemone chinensis Bai tou weng Radix Pulsatillae
Angelica dahurica Bai zhi Radix Angelicae Dahuricae
Angelica pubescens Du huo Radix Angelicae Pubescentis
Angelica sinensis Dang gui Radix Angelicae Sinensis
Angelica sinensis Dang gui wei Extremitas Radicis Angelicae Sinensis
Apis mellifera Feng jiao Propolis
Apis mellifera Feng mi Mel
Apocynum venetum Luo bu ma ye Folium Apocyni Veneti
Archidoskodon planifrons Long gu Os Draconis
Arctium lappa Niu bang zi Fructus Arctii
Areca catechu Bing lang Semen Arecae
Areca catechu Da fu pi Pericarpium Arecae
Arisaema amurense Dan nan xing Arisaema cum Bile
Arisaema erubescens Dan nan xing Arisaema cum Bile
Arisaema heterophyllum Dan nan xing Arisaema cum Bile
Arisaema amurense Tian nan xing Rhizoma Arisaematis
Arisaema erubescens Tian nan xing Rhizoma Arisaematis
Arisaema heterophyllum Tian nan xing Rhizoma Arisaematis
Arnebia euchroma Zi cao Radix Arnebiae
Arnebia guttata Zi cao Radix Arnebiae
Artemisia annua Qing hao Herba Artemisiae Annuae
Artemisia anomala Liu ji nu Herba Artemisiae Anomalae
Artemisia argyi Ai ye Folium Artemisiae Argyi
Asparagus cochinchinensis Tian dong; Tian men dong Radix Asparagi
Aster tataricus Zi wan Radix Asteris
Astragalus membranaceus Huang qi Radix Astragali
Atractylodes lancea Cang zhu Rhizoma Atractylodis
Atractylodes macrocephala Bai zhu Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae
Bambusa beecheyana Zhu ru Caulis Bambusae in Taeniam
Bambusa breviflora Zhu ru Caulis Bambusae in Taeniam
Bambusa breviflora Zhu li Succus Bambusae
Bambusa textilis Tian zhu huang Concretio Silicea Bambusae
Bambusa tuldoides Zhu ru Caulis Bambusae in Taeniam
Benincasa hispida Dong gua zi Semen Benincasae
Bletilla striata Bai ji Rhizoma Bletillae
Bombyx mori Can sha Excrementum Bombycis
Bombyx mori Jiang can Batryticatus Bombyx
Borneolum Syntheticum Bing pian Borneolum Syntheticum
Boswellia sacra Ru xiang Olibanum
Broussonetia papyrifera Chu shi zi Fructus Broussonetiae
Brucea javanica Ya dan zi Fructus Bruceae
Bupleurum chinense Chai hu Radix Bupleuri
Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Chai hu Radix Bupleuri
Calcium fluoride Zi shi ying Fluoritum
Calvatia gigantea Ma bo Lasiosphaera Calvatia
Calvatia lilacina Ma bo Lasiosphaera Calvatia
Camellia sinensis Lu cha Folium Camellia Sinensis
Canarium album Qing guo Fructus Canarii
Carthamus tinctorius Hong hua Flos Carthami
Centella asiatica Ji xue cao Herba Centellae
Centipeda minima E bu shi cao Herba Centipedae
Cervocerus novorossiae Long gu Os Draconis
Cervus elaphus Lu jiao jiao Colla Cornu Cervi
Cervus nippon Lu jiao jiao Colla Cornu Cervi
Cervus elaphus Lu jiao Cornu Cervi
Cervus nippon Lu jiao Cornu Cervi
Cervus elaphus Lu jiao shuang Cornu Cervi Degelatinatium
Cervus nippon Lu jiao shuang Cornu Cervi Degelatinatium
ervus elaphus Lu rong Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum
Cervus nippon Lu rong Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum
Cervus punjabensis Long gu Os Draconis
Chaenomeles speciosa Mu gua Fructus Chaenomelis
Chinemys reevesii Gui jia Carapace et Plastrum Testudinis
Chinemys reevesii Ban jiao gui Colla Plastrum Testudinis
Choerospondias axillaris Guang zao Fructus Choerospondiatis
Chrysanthemum indicum Ye ju hua Flos Chrysanthemi Indici
Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ju hua Flos Chrysanthemi
Cibotium barometz Gou ji Rhizoma Cibotii
Cinnamomum aromaticum Rou gui Cortex Cinnamomi
Cinnamomum aromaticum Gui zhi Ramulus Cinnamomi
Cinnamomum camphora Tian ran bing pian Borneolum
Cistanche deserticola Rou cong rong Herba Cistanches
Cistanche salsa Rou cong rong Herba Cistanches
Cistanche tubulosa Xin jiang rou cong rong Caulis Cistanchae Tubulosi
Citrullus lanatus Xi gua shuang Mirabilitum Preparatum
Citrus aurantium Zhi shi Fructus Aurantii Immaturus
Citrus aurantium Zhi qiao; Zhi ke Fructus Aurantii
Citrus maxima Hua ju hong Exocarpium Citri Grandis
Citrus medica Xiang yuan Fructus Citri
Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis Fo shou Fructus Citri Sarcodactylis
Citrus reticulata Ju he Semen Citri Reticulatae
Citrus reticulata Ju hong Exocarpium Citri Rubrum
Citrus reticulata Chen pi Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae
Citrus reticulata Qing pi Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride
Citrus sinensis Zhi shi Fructus Aurantii Immaturus
Clematis chinensis Wei ling xian Radix and Rhizoma Clematidis
Cnidium monnieri She chuang zi Fructus Cnidii
Codonopsis pilosula Dang shen Radix Codonopsis
Codonopsis tangshen Dang shen Radix Codonopsis
Combretum indicum Shi jun zi Fructus Quisqualis
Commiphora myrrha Mo yao Myrrha
Coptis chinensis Huang lian Rhizoma Coptidis
Coptis deltoidea Huang lian Rhizoma Coptidis
Coptis teeta Huang lian Rhizoma Coptidis
Cordia dichotoma Po bu zi ye Folium Cordia Dichotoma
Cornus officinalis Shan zhu yu Fructus Corni
Corydalis turtschaninovii Yan hu suo Rhizoma Corydalis
Corydalis yanhusuo Yan hu suo Rhizoma Corydalis
Crassostrea gigas Mu li Concha Ostreae
Crataegus cuneata Shan zha Fructus Crataegi
Crataegus pinnatifida Shan zha Fructus Crataegi
Cristaria plicata Zhen zhu Margarita
Cristaria plicata Zhen zhu mu Concha Margaritiferae
Cryptotympana atrata Chan tui Periostracum Cicadae
Cryptotympana pustulata Chan tui Periostracum Cicadae
Cullen corylifolium Bu gu zhi Fructus Psoraleae
Curculigo orchioides Xian mao Rhizoma Curculiginis
Curcuma kwangsiensis Yu jin Radix Curcumae
Curcuma kwangsiensis E zhu Rhizoma Curcumae
Curcuma longa Yu jin Radix Curcumae
Curcuma longa Jiang huang Rhizoma Curcumae Longae
Curcuma phaeocaulis Yu jin Radix Curcumae
Curcuma phaeocaulis E zhu Rhizoma Curcumae
Curcuma wenyujin Yu jin Radix Curcumae
Curcuma wenyujin E zhu Rhizoma Curcumae
Cuscuta chinensis Tu si zi Semen Cuscutae
Cyathula officinalis Chuan niu xi Radix Cyathulae
Cynanchum glaucescens Bai qian Rhizoma et Radix Cynanchi Stauntonii
Cynomorium songaricum Suo yang Herba Cyomorii
Cyperus rotundus Xiang fu Rhizoma Cyperi
Daemonorops draco Xue jie Sanguis Draconis
Dalbergia odorifera Jiang xiang Lignum Dalbergiae Odoriferae
Dendrobium chrysotoxum Shi hu Caulis Dendrobii
Dendrobium fimbriatum Shi hu Caulis Dendrobii
Dendrobium loddigesii Shi hu Caulis Dendrobii
Dendrobium nobile Shi hu Caulis Dendrobii
Dendrobium officinale Tie pi shi hu Caulis Dendrobii Officinalis
Descurainia sophia Ting li zi Semen Descurainiae
Dichroa febrifuga Chang shan Radix Dichroae
Dictamnus dasycarpus Bai xian pi Cortex Dictamni
Dimocarpus longan Long yan rou Arillus Longan
Dioscorea collettii var. hypoglauca Fen bi xie Rhizoma Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae
Dioscorea futschauensis Mian bi xie Rhizoma Dioscoreae Spongiosae
Dioscorea oppositifolia Shan yao Rhizoma Dioscoreae
Dioscorea spongiosa Mian bi xie Rhizoma Dioscoreae Spongiosae
Diospyros kaki Shi di Calyx Kaki
Dipsacus asper Xu duan Radix Dipsaci
Dolomiaea souliei Chuan mu xiang Radix Vladimiriae
Drynaria fortunei Gu sui bu Rhizoma Drynariae
Dryobalanops aromatica Tian ran bing pian Borneolum
Ecklonia kurome Kun bu; Hai dai Thallus Laminariae Eckloniae
Eclipta prostrata Mo han lian Herba Eclipta
Eleutherococcus gracilistylus Wu jia pi Cortex Acanthopanacis
Eleutherococcus senticosus Ci wu jia Radix et Rhizoma seu Caulis Acanthopanacis Senticosi
Ephedra intermedia Ma huang gen Radix et Rhizoma Ephedrae
Epimedium brevicornu Yin yang huo Folium Epimedii
Epimedium koreanum Yin yang huo Folium Epimedii
Epimedium pubescens Yin yang huo Folium Epimedii
Epimedium sagittatum Yin yang huo Folium Epimedii
Equus asinus E jiao Colla Corii Asini
Eriobotrya japonica Pi pa ye Folium Eriobotryae
Erodium stephanianum Lao guan cao Herba Erodii Herba Geranii
Erythrina variegata Hai tong pi Cortex Erythrinae
Eucommia ulmoides Du zhong Cortex Eucommiae
Euonymus echinatus Da ding huang Caulis Euonymi
Eupolyphaga sinensis Tu bie chong Eupolyphaga
Euryale ferox Qian shi Semen Euryales
Flemingia philippinensis Qian jin ba Radix Flemingiae Philippinensis
Flueggea virosa Bai fan shu gen Radix Securinega Virosa
Foeniculum vulgare Xiao hui xiang Fructus Foeniculi
Forsythia suspensa Lian qiao Fructus Forsythiae
Fraxinus chinensis Qin pi Cortex Fraxini
Fraxinus chinensis subsp. rhynchophylla Qin pi Cortex Fraxini
Fraxinus stylosa Qin pi Cortex Fraxini
Fraxinus szaboana Qin pi Cortex Fraxini
Fritillaria cirrhosa Chuan bei mu Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae
Fritillaria delavayi Chuan bei mu Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae
Fritillaria przewalskii Chuan bei mu Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae
Fritillaria thunbergii Zhe bei mu Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii
Fritillaria unibracteata Chuan bei mu Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae
Gallus gallus domesticus Ji nei jin Endothelium Corneum Galli Gigerii
Ganoderma lucidum Ling zhi Ganoderma
Ganoderma sinense Ling zhi Ganoderma
Gardenia jasminoides Zhi zi Fructus Gardeniae
Gastrodia elata Tian ma Rhizoma Gastrodiae
Gekko gecko Ge jie Gecko
Gentiana manshurica Long dan Radix et Rhizoma Gentianae
Gentiana scabra Long dan Radix et Rhizoma Gentianae
Gentiana triflora Long dan Radix et Rhizoma Gentianae
Gentiana rigescens Long dan Radix et Rhizoma Gentianae
Gentiana macrophylla Qin jiao Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae
Geranium carolinianum Lao guan cao Herba Erodii Herba Geranii
Geranium wilfordii Lao guan cao Herba Erodii Herba Geranii
Ginkgo biloba Yin xing ye Folium Ginkgo
Gleditsia sinensis Da zao jiao Fructus Gleditsiae Sinensis
Gleditsia sinensis Zao jiao ci Spina Gleditsiae
Glehnia littoralis Bei sha shen Radix Glehniae
Glycine max Dan dou chi Semen Sojae Preparatum
Glycine max Da dou huang juan Semen Sojae Germinatum
Glycine max Hei dou Semen Sojae Nigrum
Glycyrrhiza glabra Gan cao Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhiza
Glycyrrhiza glabra Zhi gan cao Radix Glycyrrhiza Preparata
Glycyrrhiza inflata Gan cao Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhiza
Glycyrrhiza inflata Zhi gan cao Radix Glycyrrhiza Preparata
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Gan cao Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhiza
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Zhi gan cao Radix Glycyrrhiza Preparata
Gynostemma pentaphyllum Jiao gu lan Rhizoma seu Herba Gynostemmatis
Gypsum Fibrosum Shi gao Gypsum Fibrosum
Haliotis asinina Shi jue ming Concha Haliotidis
Haliotis discus hannai Shi jue ming Concha Haliotidis
Haliotis diversicolor Shi jue ming Concha Haliotidis
Haliotis ovina Shi jue ming Concha Haliotidis
Haliotis ruber Shi jue ming Concha Haliotidis
Hansenia forbesii Qiang huo Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii
Hansenia weberbaueriana Qiang huo Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii
Helminthostachys zeylanica Dao di wu gong Rhizoma Heliminthostachytis
Hierodula patellifera Sang piao xiao O├Âtheca mantidis
Hippophae rhamnoides Sha ji Fructus Hippophae
Hirudo nipponica Shui zhi Hirudo
Homalomena occulta Qian nian jian Rhizoma Homalomenae
Hordeum vulgare Mai ya Fructus Hordei Germinatus
Hordeum vulgare Yi tang Maltosum
Houttuynia cordata Yu xing cao Herba Houttuyniae
Huperzia serrata Jin bu huan Herba Lycopodii Serrati
Hypericum perforatum Guan ye lian qiao Herba HypericI Perforati
Hyptis capitata Mo gu xiao Caulis Hyptis Capitatae
Hyriopsis cumingii Zhen zhu Margarita
Hyriopsis cumingii Zhen zhu mu Concha Margaritiferae
Ilex pubescens Mao dong qing Radix Illicis Pubescentis
Illicium verum Ba jiao hui xiang Fructus Anisi Stellati
Imperata cylindrica Bai mao gen Rhizoma Imperatae
Inula britannica Xuan fu hua Flos Inulae
Iris domestica She gan Rhizoma Belamcandae
Isatis tinctoria Da qing ye Folium Isatidis
Isatis tinctoria Ban lan gen Radix Isatidis
Isatis tinctoria Qing dai Indigo Naturalis
Isodon rubescens Dong ling cao Herba Rabdosiae Rubescentis
Jasminum sambac Mo li hua Flos Jasmini Sambac
Juglans regia He tao ren; Hu tao ren Semen Juglandis
Justicia procumbens Shu wei huang Herba Rostellulariae
Lablab purpureus Bai bian dou Semen Lablab Album
Laminaria japonica Kun bu; Hai dai Thallus Laminariae Eckloniae
Lasiosphaera fenzlii Ma bo Lasiosphaera Calvatia
Leonurus japonicus Chong wei zi Fructus Leonuri
Leonurus japonicus Yi mu cao Herba Leonuri
Lepidium apetalum Ting li zi Semen Lepidii
Leucas mollissima var. chinensis Hu yao huang Herba Leucas Mollissimae
Ligusticum sinense cv. chuanxiong Chuan xiong Rhizoma Chuanxiong
Ligusticum sinense var. sinense Gao ben Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici
Ligusticum sinense Gao ben Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici
Ligusticum jeholense Gao ben Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici
Ligustrum lucidum Nu zhen zi Fructus Ligustri Lucidi
Lilium brownii Bai he Bulbus Lilii
Lilium brownii var. viridulum Bai he Bulbus Lilii
Lilium lancifolium Bai he Bulbus Lilii
Lilium pumilum Bai he Bulbus Lilii
Lindera aggregata Wu yao Radix Linderae
Lindernia anagallis Ding jing cao Herba Linderniae
Linum usitatissimum Ya ma zi Semen Lini
Liquidambar formosana Lu lu tong Fructus Liquidambaris
Litchi chinensis Li zhi he Semen Litchi
Lonicera japonica Jin yin hua Flos Lonicerae Japonicae
Lonicera japonica Ren dong teng Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae
Lophatherum gracile Dan zhu ye Herba Lophatheri
Ludwigia prostrata Shui ding xiang Herba Ludwigiae Prostratae
Luffa aegyptiaca Si gua luo Retinervus Luffae Fructus
Lycium barbarum Di gu pi Cortex Lycii
Lycium barbarum Gou qi zi Fructus Lycii
Lycium chinense Di gu pi Cortex Lycii
Lycopodium japonicum Shen jin cao Herba Lycopodii
Lycopus lucidus var. hirtus Ze lan Herba Lycopi
Maclura cochinchinensis Huang jin gui Caulis Vanieriae
Magnolia biondii Xin yi Flos Magnoliae
Magnolia denudata Xin yi Flos Magnoliae
Magnolia officinalis Hou po Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis
Magnolia sprengeri Xin yi Flos Magnoliae
Melaphis chinensis Wu bei zi Galla Chinensis
Melia azedarach Ku lian zi Fructus Meliae
Melia toosendan Chuan lian zi Fructus Toosendan
Mentha canadensis Bo he Herba Menthae Haplocalycis
Mentha canadensis Bo he su you (Essential Oil) Oleum Menthae Dementholatum
l-Menthol Bo he nao Mentholum
Mimosa pudica Han xiu cao gen Radix Mimosae Pudicae
Morinda officinalis Ba ji tian Radix Morindae Officinalis
Morus alba Sang bai pi Cortex Mori
Morus alba Sang ye Folium Mori
Morus alba Sang shen zi Fructus Mori
Morus alba Sang zhi Ramulus Mori
Mosla chinensis Xiang ru Herba Moslae
Myristica fragrans Rou dou kou Semen Myristicae
Myosoton aquaticum Cha chi huang Herba Stellariae Aquaticae
Nandina domestica Tian zhu zi Fructus Nandinae Domesticae
Nelumbo nucifera He ye Folium Nelumbinis
Nelumbo nucifera Ou jie Nodus Nelumbinis Rhizomatis
Nelumbo nucifera Lian zi Semen Nelumbinus
Nelumbo nucifera Lian xu Stamen Nelumbinis
Nelumbo nucifera Lian zi xin Plumula Nelumbinis
Nelumbo nucifera Lian fang Receptaculum Nelumbinis
Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora Hu huang lian Rhizoma Picrorhizae
Nepeta tenuifolia Jing jie Herba Schizonepetae
Ocimum basilicum Jiu ceng ta Herba Ocimi Basilic
Ocimum gratissimum Dingxiang Luoleyou Ocimum Gratissimum Essential Oil
Oldenlandia diffusa Bai hua she she cao Herba Hedyotis Diffusae
Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dong chong xia cao Cordyceps (wild)
Ophiopogon japonicus Mai dong; Mai men dong Radix Ophiopogonis
Oroxylum indicum Mu hu die Semen Oroxyli
Oryza sativa Dao ya Fructus Oryzae Germinatus
Oryza sativa Geng mi Semen Oryzae
Paecilomyces hepiali Fa xiao chong cao jun fen Cordyceps (cultured)
Paeonia anomala subsp. veitchii Chi shao Radix Paeoniae Rubra
Paeonia lactiflora Chi shao Radix Paeoniae Rubra
Paeonia lactiflora Bai shao Radix Paeoniae Alba
Paeonia suffruticosa Mu dan pi Cortex Moutan
Palaeoloxodon nomadicus Long gu Os Draconis
Panax ginseng Ren shen Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng
Panax notoginseng San qi Radix et Rhizoma Notoginseng
Panax quinquefolius Xi yang shen Radix Panacis Quinquefolii
Parapolybia varia Feng fang Nidus Vespae
Paris polyphylla Chong lou Rhizoma Paridis
Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis Zao xiu Rhizoma Paridis
Paris polyphylla var. chinensis Zao xiu Rhizoma Paridis
Patrinia scabiosifolia Bai jiang cao Herba cum Radice Patriniae
Pelodiscus sinensis Bie jia Carapax Trionycis
Pelodiscus sinensis Bie jia jiao Colla Carapax Trionycis
Perilla frutescens Zi su geng Caulis Perillae
Perilla frutescens Zi su ye Folium Perillae
Perilla frutescens Zi su zi Fructus Perillae
Persicaria tinctoria Qing dai Indigo Naturalis
Peucedanum praeruptorum Qian hu Radix Peucedani
Phellodendron amurense Guan huang bo Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis
Phellodendron chinense Huang bo Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis
Pheretima aspergillum Di long Pheretima
Pheretima guillelmi Di long Pheretima
Pheretima pectinifera Di long Pheretima
Pheretima vulgaris Di long Pheretima
Phragmites australis Lu gen Rhizoma Phragmitis
Phyla nodiflora Ya she huang Herba Lippiae
Physalis angulata Pao zai cao Herba Physalis Angulatae
Phyllolobium chinense Sha yuan zi Semen Astragali Complanati
Phyllostachys nigra Zhu ru Caulis Bambusae in Taeniam
Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis Zhu li Succus Bambusae
Phyllostachys nigra var nigra Zhu ye Herba Phyllostachys
Pinellia ternata Fa ban xia; Zhi ban xia Rhizoma Pinelliae Preparatum
Pinellia ternata Qing ban xia Rhizoma Pinelliae Preparatum cum Alumine
Pinellia ternata Jiang ban xia Rhizoma Pinelliae Preparatum cum Zingibere et Alumina
Piper longum** Bi bo Fructus Piperis Longui
Plantago asiatica Che qian cao Herba Plantaginis
Plantago depressa Che qian cao Herba Plantaginis
Plantago asiatica Che qian zi Semen Plantaginis
Plantago depressa Che qian zi Semen Plantaginis
Platycladus orientalis Ce bai ye Cacumen Platycladi
Platycladus orientalis Bai zi ren Semen Platycladi
Platycodon grandiflorus Jie geng Radix Platycodonis
Pleione bulbocodioides Shan ci gu Pseudobulbus Cremastrae Pleione
Pleione yunnanensis Shan ci gu Pseudobulbus Cremastrae Pleione
Pogostemon cablin Guang huo xiang Herba Pogostemon
Pogostemon cablin Guang huo xiang you Oleum Pogostemonis
Polistes jokahamae Feng fang Nidus Vespae
Polistes olivaceus Feng fang Nidus Vespae
Polygala tenuifolia Yuan zhi Radix Polygalae
Polygonatum cirrhifolium Huang jing Rhizoma Polygonati
Polygonatum cyrtonema Huang jing Rhizoma Polygonati
Polygonatum kingianum Huang jing Rhizoma Polygonati
Polygonatum odoratum Yu zhu Rhizoma Polygonati Odorati
Polygonatum sibiricum Huang jing Rhizoma Polygonati
Portulaca oleracea Ma chi xian Herba Portulacae
Prunella vulgaris Xia ku cao Spica Prunellae
Prunus mume Wu mei Fructus Mume
Pseudostellaria heterophylla Tai zi shen Radix Pseudostellariae
Pteria martensii Zhen zhu Margarita
Pteria martensii Zhen zhu mu Concha Margaritiferae
Pteris multifida Feng wei cao Herba Pteris
Ptyas dhumnades Wu shao she Zaocys
Pueraria montana var. lobata Ge hua Flos Puerariae
Pyrola callientha Lu xian cao; Lu han cao Herba Pyrolae
Pyrola decorata Lu xian cao Herba Pyrolae
Pyrola rotundifolia Lu xian cao Herba Pyrolae
Pyrrosia lingua Shi wei Folium Pyrrosiae
Pyrrosia petiolosa Shi wei Folium Pyrrosiae
Pyrrosia sheareri Shi wei Folium Pyrrosiae
Ranunclus ternatus Mao zhao cao Radix Ranunculi Ternati
Raphanus sativus Lai fu zi Semen Raphani
Rehmannia glutinosa Sheng di huang Radix Rehmanniae
Rehmannia glutinosa Shu di huang Radix Rehmanniae Preparata
Reynoutria japonica Hu zhang Rhizoma et Radix Polygoni Cuspidati
Reynoutria multiflora He shou wu Radix Polygoni Multiflori (non preparata)
Reynoutria multiflora Zhi he shou wu Radix Polygoni Multiflorum Praeparata
Reynoutria multiflora Shou wu teng Caulis Polygoni Multiflori
Rhaponticum uniflorum Lou lu Radix Rhapontici
Rhodiola crenulata Hong jing tian Radix et Rhizoma Rhodiolae Crenulatae
Rhus chinensis Wu bei zi Galla Chinensis
Rhus potaninii Wu bei zi Galla Chinensis
Rhus punjabensis var. sinica Wu bei zi Galla Chinensis
Rosa laevigata Jin ying zi Fructus Rosae Laevigatae
Rubia cordifolia Qian cao Radix Rubiae
Rubus chingii Fu pen zi Fructus Rubi
Salvia chinensis Shi jian chuan Herba Salviae Chinensis
Salvia miltiorrhiza Dan shen Radix et Rhizoma Salviae Miltiorrhizae
Sambucus chinensis Mo gu xiao Caulis Hyptis Capitatae
Sanguisorba officinalis Di yu Radix Sanguisorbae
Santalum album Tan xiang Lignum Santali Albi
Saposhnikovia divaricata Fang feng Radix Saposhnikoviae
Sarcandra glabra Zhong jie feng Herba Sarcandrae
Sargassum fusiforme Hai zao Sargassum
Sargassum pallidum Hai zao Sargassum
Sargentodoxa cuneata Da xue teng Caulis Sargentodoxae
Saussurea costus Mu xiang Radix Aucklandiae
Scaphium affine Pang da hai Semen Sterculiae Lychnophorae
Schefflera arboricola Qi ye lian Radix Schefflerae
Schefflera leucantha Qi ye lian Radix Schefflerae
Schisandra sphenanthera Nan wu wei zi Fructus Schisandrae Sphenanthera
Schisandra chinensis Wu wei zi Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis
Schizostachyum chinense Tian zhu huang Concretio Silicea Bambusae
Scrophularia ningpoensis Xuan shen Radix Scrophulariae
Scutellaria baicalensis Huang qin Radix Scutellariae
Scutellaria barbata Ban zhi lian Herba Scutellariae Barbatae
Selaginella pulvinata Juan bai Herba Selaginellae
Selaginella tamariscina Juan bai Herba Selaginellae
Senegalia catechu Er cha Catechu
Sepia esculenta Hai piao xiao Endoconcha Sepiae
Sepiella inermis Hai piao xiao Endoconcha Sepiae
Sesamum indicum Ma you Oleum Sesami
Sesamum indicum Hei zhi ma Semen Sesami Nigrum
Setaria italica Gu ya Fructus Setariae Germinatus
Siegesbeckia glabrescens Xi xian cao Herba Siegesbeckiae
Siegesbeckia orientalis Xi xian cao Herba Siegesbeckiae
Siegesbeckia pubescens Xi xian cao Herba Siegesbeckiae
Silybum marianum Shui fei ji Fructus Silybi
Sinapis alba Jie zi Semen Sinapis
Sinocrassula indica Shi lian zi Herba Sinocrassulae Indicae
Siraitia grosvenorii Luo han guo Fructus Momordicae
Smilax glabra Tu fu ling Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae
Sodium Sulfate Xiuan ming fen Natrii Sulfas Exsiccatus
Sodium Sulfate Decahydrate Mang xiao Natrii Sulfas
Solanum nigrum Long kui Herba Solani Nigri
Solidago decurrens Ye zhi huang hua Herba Solidaginis
Sophora flavescens Ku shen Radix Sophorae Flavescentis
Sparganium eurycarpum San leng Rhizoma Sparganii
Spatholobus suberectus Ji xue teng Caulis Spatholobi
Spirodela polyrhiza Fu ping Herba Spirodelae
Statilia maculata Sang piao xiao Oötheca mantidis
Stellaria dichotoma var. lanceolata Yin chai hu Radix Stellariae
Stemona japonica Bai bu Radix Stemonae
Strobilanthes cusia Qing dai Indigo Naturalis
Styphnolobium japonicum Huai jiao Fructus Sophorae
Styphnolobium japonicum Huai hua Flos Sophorae
Styrax tonkinensis An xi xiang Benzoinum
Succinum Hu po Succinum
Syzygium aromaticum Ding xiang Flos Caryophylli
Talcum Hua shi Talcum
Taraxacum mongolicum Pu gong ying Herba Taraxaci
Taraxacum sinicum Pu gong ying Herba Taraxaci
Taxillus chinensis Sang ji sheng Herba Taxilli
Taxillus sutchuenensis Sang ji sheng Herba Taxilli
Tegillarca granosa Wa leng zi Concha Arcae
Tenodera sinensis Sang piao xiao Oötheca mantidis
Terminalia chebula He zi Fructus Chebulae
Tetradium ruticarpum Wu zhu yu Fructus Euodiae
Tinospora sagittata Jin guo lan Radix Tinosporae
Tinospora sinensis Kuan jin teng Caulis Tinosporae Sinenis
Trametes versicolor Yun zhi Coriolus
Tribulus terrestris Ji li Fructus Tribuli
Trichosanthes kirilowii Gua lou; Gua lou shi Fructus Trichosanthis
Trichosanthes rosthornii Gua lou; Gua lou shi Fructus Trichosanthis
Trichosanthes kirilowii Gua lou zi ; Gua lou ren Semen Trichosanthis
Trichosanthes rosthornii Gua lou zi ; Gua lou ren Semen Trichosanthis
Trichosanthes kirilowii Gua lou pi Pericarpium Trichosanthis
Trichosanthes rosthornii Gua lou pi Pericarpium Trichosanthis
Trichosanthes kirilowii Tian hua fen;Gua lou gen Radix Trichosanthis
Trichosanthes rosthornii Tian hua fen; Gua lou gen Radix Trichosanthis
Trigonella foenum-graecum Hu lu ba Semen Trigonellae
Triticum aestivum Fu xiao mai Semen Tritici Aestivi Levis
Triticum aestivum Xiao mai Fructus Tritici
Trogopterus xanthipes Wu ling zhi Excrementum Trogopteri seu Pteromi
Typha angustifolia Pu huang Pollen Typhae
Typha orientalis Pu huang Pollen Typhae
Uncaria gambir Er cha Catechu
Uncaria rhynchophylla Gou teng Ramulus cum Uncis Uncariae
Vaccaria hispanica subsp. hispanica Wang bu liu xing Semen Vaccariae
Valeriana officinalis Xie cao Radix et Rhizoma Valerianae
Verbena officinalis Ma bian cao Herba Verbenae
Vigna radiata var. radiata Lu dou Semen Phaseoli Radiati
Vincetoxicum atratum Bai wei Radix et Rhizoma Cynanchi Atrati
Vincetoxicum pycnostelma Xu chang qing Radix et Rhizoma Cynanchi Paniculati
Vincetoxicum stauntonii Bai qian Rhizoma et Radix Cynanchi Stauntonii
Vincetoxicum versicolor Bai wei Radix et Rhizoma Cynanchi Atrati
Viola philippica var. philippica Zi hua di ding Herba Violae
Vitex rotundifolia Man jing zi Fructus Viticis
Vitex trifolia Man jing zi Fructus Viticis
Whitmania acranulata Shui zhi Hirudo
Whitmania pigra Shui zhi Hirudo
Wikstroemia indica Pu yin Radix seu Rhizoma Wikstroemiae
Wolfiporia extensa Fu ling pi Cutis Poriae
Wolfiporia extensa Fu shen Sclerotium Pararadicus Poriae
Zanthoxylum bungeanum Hua jiao Pericarpium Zanthoxyli
Zanthoxylum nitidum Liang mian zhen Radix Zanthoxyli
Zanthoxylum schinifolium Hua jiao Pericarpium Zanthoxyli
Zea mays Yu mi xu Stigma Maydis
Zingiber officinale Gan jiang Rhizoma Zingiberis
Zingiber officinale Pao jiang Rhizoma Zingiberis Preparatum
Zingiber officinale Sheng jiang Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens
Zingiber officinale Sheng jiang pi Pericarpium Zingiberis Recens
Ziziphus jujuba Da zao Fructus Jujubae
Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa Suan zao ren Semen Ziziphi Spinosae

Table 2: Medicinal Ingredients with diuretic or stimulant laxative properties
Proper (species) Name Common (pinyin) Name Pharmacopoeial Name*
Ingredients with diuretic properties

Table 1 Footnotes

Table 2 Footnote 1

The Pharmacopoeial name is the ingredient name found in the NHPID.

Return to Table 1 footnote * referrer

Alisma plantago-aquatica subsp. orientale Ze xie Rhizoma Alismatis
Artemisia capillaris Yin chen Herba Artemisiae Scopariae
Artemisia scoparia Yin chen Herba Artemisiae Scopariae
Bassia scoparia Di fu zi Fructus Kochiae
Benincasa hispida Dong gua pi Exocarpium Benincasae
Clematis armandii Chuan mu tong Caulis Clematidis Armandii
Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen Yi yi ren Semen Coicis
Dianthus superbus Qu mai Herba Dianthi
Desmodium styracifolium Guang jin qian cao Herba Desmodii Styracifolii
Juncus effusus Deng xin cao Medulla Junci
Lygodium japonicum Hai jin sha Herba Lygodii
Lysimachia christinae Jin qian cao Herba Lysmachiae
Plantago asiatica Che qian zi Semen Plantaginis
Polygonum aviculare Bian xu Herba Polygoni Avicularis
Polyporus umbellatus Zhu ling Polyporus
Stephania tetrandra Fang ji Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae
Tetrapanax papyrifer Tong cao Medulla Tetrapanacis
Vigna angularis Chi xiao dou Semen Phaseoli
Vigna umbellata Chi xiao dou Semen Phaseoli
Wolfiporia extensa Fu ling Poria
Wolfiporia extensa Chi fu ling Poria Rubra
Ingredients with stimulant laxative properties
Aloe ferox Lu hui Aloe
Aloe vera Lu hui Aloe
Rheum officinale Da huang Radix et Rhizoma Rhei
Rheum palmatum Da huang Radix et Rhizoma Rhei
Rheum tanguticum Da huang Radix et Rhizoma Rhei
Senna obtusifolia Jue ming zi Semen Cassiae
Senna alexandrina Fan xie ye Folium Sennae
Senna tora Jue ming zi Semen Cassiae


Table 3: Medicinal Ingredients that are only allowable when prepared according to the specifications outlined in the NHPID for each ingredient
Proper (species) Name Common (pinyin) Name Pharmacopoeial Name*

Table 3 Footnotes

Table 3 Footnote 1

The Pharmacopoeial name is the ingredient name found in the NHPID.

Return to Table 3 footnote * referrer

Aconitum carmichaelii Zhi chuan wu Radix Aconiti Preparata
Aconitum kusnezoffii Zhi chuan wu Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii
Acorus calamus Zang chang pu Rhizoma Acori Calami
Acorus gramineus Shi chang pu Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii
Artemisia annua Shen qu Massa Medicata Fermentata
Persicaria hydropiper
Prunus armeniaca
Triticum aestivum
Vigna umbellata
Xanthium sibiricum
Buthus martensii Quan xie Scorpio
Cannabis sativa Huo ma ren Semen Cannabis
Cremastra appendiculata Shan ci gu Pseudobulbus Cremastrae Pleione
Ephedra equisetina Ma huang Herba Ephedrae
Ephedra intermedia
Ephedra sinica
Ginkgo biloba Bai guo Semen Ginkgo
Lithospermum erythrorhizon Zi cao gen Radix Lithospermi
Massa Medicata Fermentata
(Guangdong Shenqu)
Massa Medicata Fermentata
(Guangdong Shenqu)
Massa Medicata Fermentata
(Guangdong Shenqu)
Menispermum dauricum Bei dou gen Rhizoma Menispermi
Monascus purpurea-fermented Oryza sativa Hong qu Red Yeast Rice
Prunus armeniaca var. ansu Ku xing ren Semen Armeniacae Amarum
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus sibirica
Prunus humilis Yu li ren Semen Pruni
Prunus japonica
Prunus pedunculata
Prunus davidiana Tao ren Semen Persicae
Prunus persica
Pueraria montana var. lobata Ge gen Radix Puerariae Lobatae
Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans Wu gong Scolopendra
Tussilago farfara Kuan dong hua Flos Farfarae
Typhonium giganteum Bai fu zi Rhizoma Typhonii
Xanthium sibiricum Cang er zi Fructus Xanthii

Table 4: The following medicinal ingredients have been evaluated and are excluded from this monograph due to safety concerns. Note that this list is not all-inclusive.
Proper (species) Name Common (pinyin) Name Pharmacopoeial Name*

Table 4 Footnotes

Table 4 Footnote 1

The Pharmacopoeial name is the ingredient name found in the NHPID.

Return to Table 4 footnote * referrer

Aconitum carmichaelii Chuan wu Radix Aconiti
Aristolochia contorta Ma dou ling Fructus Aristolochiae
Aristolochia debilis
Aristolochia contorta Tian xian teng Herba Aristolochiae
Aristolochia debilis
Aristolochia contorta Qing mu xiang Radix Aristolochiae
Aristolochia debilis
Aristolochia fangchi Guang fang ji Radix Aristolochiae Fangchi
Aristolochia kaempferi Da ye ma dou ling Caulis Aristolochiae Kaempferi
Aristolochia manshuriensis Guan mu tong Caulis Aristolochiae Manshuriensis
Aristolochia mollissima Xun gu feng Herba Aristolochiae Mollissimae
Aristolochia moupinensis Huai tong ma dou ling Caulis Aristolochiae Moupinensis
Arsenic sulfide Xiong huang Realgar
Aluminum potassium sulfate Bai fan Alumen
Croton tiglium Ba dou Fructus Crotoni
Deinagkistrodon acutus Qi she Agkistrodon
Dryopteris crassirhizoma Mian ma guan zhong Rhizoma Dryopteridis
Lead tetroxide Qian dan Minium
Melia azedarach Ku lian pi Cortex Meliae
Mercurous chloride Qing fen Calomelas
Mercuric sulphide Zhu sha Cinnabaris
Sophora tonkinensis Shan dou gen Radix et Rhizoma Sophorae Tonkinensis
Sophora flavescens

Appendix II: Examples of appropriate routes of administration and dosage forms

Examples of acceptable routes of administration:

  • Oral route of administration for tinctures, dried plant material, decoctions, expressed juices, etc.
  • Buccal route of administration for rinse or gargle preparations
  • Topical route of administration for creams, ointments, essential oils, expressed juices, etc.

Examples of acceptable dosage forms:

  • Products that are tinctures can be supported by referenced texts that provide information on fluidextracts (ethanolic); spirit-based preparations (e.g.: plant material mixed with wine; plant material mixed with whisky); ethanolic tinctures (with known extract ratio); dried powdered extracts (with known Quantity crude equivalent (QCE)).
  • Products that are ointments, liniments, creams, etc. can be supported by referenced texts that provide information on dried plant material or powdered extracts (with known QCE).
  • Buccal gargle or rinse preparations can be supported by referenced texts that provide information on dried plant material, powdered extracts, and ethanolic-based preparations (with known QCE).
  • Essential oils and resins can be supported by referenced texts that provide information on the specific essential oils or resins (drops).