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This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLAs) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient.



August 5, 2019

Proper name(s), Common name(s), Source material(s)

Table 1. Proper name(s), Common name(s), Source material(s)
Proper name(s) Common name(s) Source material(s)
Proper name(s) Part(s) Preparation

Pulmonaria officinalis

  • Bloody-butcher
  • Boys-and-girls
  • Hundreds-and-thousands
  • Jerusalem cowslip
  • Jerusalem-sage
  • Joseph-and-Mary
  • Lungwort
  • Mary-spilt-the-milk
  • Soldiers-and sailors
  • Spotted-dog

Pulmonaria officinalis



References: Proper name: USDA 2019; Common names: USDA 2019, McGuffin et al. 2000; Source material: Williamson 2003, BHP 1983.

Route of Administration


Dosage Form(s)

This monograph excludes foods or food-like dosage forms as indicated in the Compendium of Monographs Guidance Document.

Acceptable dosage forms for any age category listed in this monograph for the specified route of administration are listed in the Compendium of Monographs Guidance Document.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

The following combined use(s) or purpose(s) is/are also acceptable:

Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine as an expectorant to help relieve the symptoms of bronchitis, reduce mucous buildup of the (upper) respiratory tract (catarrhs) and (as a demulcent) to help relieve sore throat (Wichtl 2004; Williamson 2003; Bisset and Wichtl 2001; BHP 1983; Remington et al. 1918; Sayre 1917).

Claims for traditional use must include the term "Herbal Medicine", "Traditional Chinese Medicine", or "Ayurveda".



Adults 18 years and older


Methods of preparation: Dry, Powder, Non-Standardized Extracts (Dry extract, Tincture, Fluid extract, Decoction, Infusion)

2 - 4 grams of dried leaves, 3 times per day (Williamson 2003; BHP 1983).

Direction(s) for use

No statement required.

Duration(s) of Use


For occasional use only (Berardi et al. 2002; CPA 2002).

Other uses

No statement required.

Risk Information

Caution(s) and warning(s)


No statement required.

Known adverse reaction(s)

No statement required.

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database (NHPID) and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Storage conditions

No statement required.


References Cited

References Reviewed