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Drugs and Health Products

Monograph: Ginger

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Date: 2008-01-18


Zingiber officinale (USDA 2008)

Proper Name(s)

Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ( USDA 2008 )

Common Name(s)

Ginger ( McGuffin et al. 2000 , Wiersema and León 1999 )

Source Material

Rhizome ( McGuffin et al. 2000 , WHO 1999 , Bradley 1992 )

Route Of Administration


Dosage Form(s)

Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:


Adults, adolescents and children 6 and over:

Anti-nausea use
Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.5 - 2 Grams per day, dried rhizome
Directions For Use: For anti-nausea use, take a single dose 30 minutes before travel and, optionally, every 4 hours as necessary (Mills and Bone 2005, ESCOP 2003, Riebenfeld and Borzone 1999, Schmid et al. 1994)

Relief of digestive upsets/disturbances; Expectorant/anti-tussive
Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.3 - 3 Grams per day, dried rhizome

See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.

Duration of use

No statement is required

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):
  • Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist.
  • Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms worsen.

No statement is required

Known Adverse Reaction(s):
No statement is required

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.


  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).

References cited

  • Bradley PR, editor. 1992. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 1. Bournemouth (GB): British Herbal Medicine Association.
  • Ellingwood F. 1983. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications [Reprint of 1919 original].
  • ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme; 2003.
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 1, 18th edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 1983 [Reprint of 1898 original].
  • Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, Asping U. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1990;38:19-24.
  • Grřntved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. Ginger root against seasickness; a controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngology 1988;105:45-49.
  • Lien HC, Sun WM, Chen YH, Kim H, Hasler W, Owyang C. Effects of ginger on motion sickness and gastric slow-wave dysrhythmias induced by circular vection. American Journal of Physiology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2003;284(3):G481-G489.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Toronto (ON): Churchill Livingstone.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
  • Mowrey DB, Clayson DE. Motion sickness, ginger, and psychophysics. Lancet 1982;1(8273): 655-657.
  • Riebenfeld D, Borzone L. Randomized double-blind study comparing ginger (Zintona®) and dimenhydrinate in motion sickness. European Phytotherapy1999;2(6):98-101.
  • Schmid R, Schick T, Steffen R, Tschopp A, Wilk T.Comparison of seven commonly used agents for prophylaxis of seasickness. Journal of Travel Medicine 1994;1(4):203-206.
  • USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at
  • WHO 1999: World Health Organization. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 1. Geneva (CH): World Health Organization; 1999.
  • Wiersema J, León B. 1999. World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press LLC.
  • Wren RC. 1907. Potter's Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. London (GB): Potter and Clark.

References reviewed

  • Backon J. Ginger as an antiemetic: possible side effects due to its thromboxane synthetase activity. Anaesthesia 1991;46(8):705-706.
  • Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 1997;56(5):379-84.
  • Careddu P. Motion sickness in children: Results of a double-blind study with ginger (ZintonaR) and dimenhydrinate. European Phytotherapy 1999;6(2):102-7.
  • Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, Ammit AJ, Roufogalis BD, Duke CC, Day RO, McLachlan AJ. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2005;59(4):425-32.
  • Krüth P, Brosi E, Fux R, Mörike K, Gleiter CH. Ginger-associated overanticoagulation by phenprocoumon. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2004;38(2):257-260.
  • Lumb AB. Effect of dried ginger on human platelet function. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1994;71(1):110-111.
  • Srivastava KC. Effects of onion and ginger consumption on platelet thromboxane production in humans. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 1989;35(3):183-185.

Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use

Anti-nausea use:

Dried rhizome:

  • 1-2 g, per day (Mills and Bone 2005; Bradley 1992)
  • 0.5-2 g, per day, in single or divided doses (ESCOP 2003)

Directions for use:

Take a single dose 30 minutes before travel (Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003) and every 4 hours as necessary (Riebenfeld and Borzone 1999; Schmid et al. 1994).

Other uses:

Dried rhizome:

  • 0.75-3 g, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 0.25-1 g, 3 times per day (Bradley 1992)
  • 0.6-2 g (10-30 grains), per day (Felter and Lloyd 1983 [1898])


0.6-1.2 g dried equivalent, per day
(1:1, 0.6-1.2 ml (10-20 minims)) (Wren 1907)


  • 0.4-1 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:2, 0.7-2 ml) (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 0.3-1 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:5, 1.7-5 ml) (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 0.1-0.2 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day
    (1:2, 90% ethanol, 0.25-0.5 ml) (Bradley 1992)
  • 0.3-0.6 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day
    (1:5, 90% ethanol, 1.5-3.0 ml) (Bradley 1992)