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Monograph: Cassia cinnamon - Cinnamomum aromaticum

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This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLAs) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient. Notes: (i) Text in parentheses is additional optional information which can be included on the PLA and product label at the applicant's discretion. (ii) The solidus (/) indicates that the terms and/or the statements are synonymous. Either term or statement may be selected by the applicant. (iii) A claim for a traditional use must include either the term "Herbal Medicine" or "Traditional Chinese Medicine".

Date: 2018-12-18


Cinnamomum aromaticum (Germplasm Resources Information Network Taxonomy)

Proper Name(s)

Cinnamomum aromaticum ( USDA 2009 , McGuffin et al. 2000 )

Common Name(s)

Source Material

Route Of Administration


Dosage Form(s)

The acceptable pharmaceutical dosage forms include, but are not limited to capsules, chewables (e.g. gummies, tablets), liquids, powders, strips or tablets. This monograph is not intended to include foods or food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:


Trunk bark



Dose(s): 1 Day per day

Directions For Use:
  • Take 30 minutes before meals.
  • Take with food/meal.

Duration of use

For products providing  4 - 6 Grams per day :
Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/physician for use beyond 6 weeks.  (Safdar et al. 2004, Khan et al. 2003)

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):
  • Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/physician if symptoms persist or worsen.  (NS 2011, Brinker 2010)
  • Doses greater than or equal to 1 Grams per day:
    Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/physician prior to use if you are breastfeeding or have diabetes.  (Blumenthal et al. 2000, WHO 1999)


Known Adverse Reaction(s):
Stop use if hypersensitivity/allergy occurs.  (Blumenthal et al. 2000, WHO 1999, Blumenthal 1998, McGuffin et al. 1997)

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.


  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).

References cited

  • Al-Jamal AR. Effects of cinnamon on blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic patients (type 1). AJBR 2009;3(5):181-184.
  • Bensky D, Clavey S, Stoger E, Gamble A, editors. Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica. 3rd edition. Scattle (WA): Eastland Press Inc; 2004.
  • BHC 2006: Bradley PR, editor. British Herbal Compendium Volume 2: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs?Companion to the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Bournemouth (GB): British Herbal Medicine Association; 2006.
  • Blumenthal M, editor. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin (TX): American Botanical Council in cooperation with Integrative Medicine Communications; 1998.
  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): American Botanical Council. 2000.
  • Brinker 2010: Brinker F. Final updates and additions for Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition, including extensive Appendices addressing common problematic conditions, medications and nutritional supplements, and influences on Phase I, II & III metabolism with new appendix on botanicals as complementary adjuncts with drugs. [Internet]. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications. [Updated July 13 2010; Accessed 2012 April 23]. Available from:
  • Chen JK, Chen TT. Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology. Crampton L, editor. City of Industry (CA): Art of Medicine Press Inc; 2004.
  • Crawford P. Effectiveness of cinnamon for lowering hemoglobin A1C in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Board Fam Med. 2009; 22(5):507-512.
  • Davis PA, Yokoyama W. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis. Journal of Medicinal Food 2011;14(9):884-889.
  • Gruenwald J, Freder J, Armbruester N. Cinnamon and health. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2010;50(9):822-834.
  • Halvorsen BL, Carlsen MH, Phillips KM, Bohn SK, Holte K, Jacobs DR Jr, Blomhoff R. Content of redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants) in foods consumed in the United States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;84(1):95-135.
  • ITIS 2011: Cinnamomum aromaticum [2011] Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) [Internet]. Accessed 2012 May 23]. Available from:
  • Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan MM, Khattak KN, Anderson RA. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(12):3215-3218.
  • Mang B, Wolters M, Schmitt B, Kelb K, Lichtinghagen R, Stichtenoth DO, Hahn A. Effects of a cinnamon extract on plasma glucose, HbA1C, and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus type 2. Eur J Clin Invest. 2006;36(5):340-344.
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press LLC; 1997.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Silver Spring (MD): American Herbal Products Association.
  • NS 2011: Cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.) Natural Standard Professional Monograph [Internet]. Natural Standard Inc; 2011 [Accessed 2012 May 23]. Available from
  • PPRC 2010: Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Volume 1, English edition 2010. Beijing (CN): The State Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People's Republic of China.
  • Roussel AM, Hininger I, Benaraba R, Ziegenfuss TN, Anderson RA. Antioxidant effects of a cinnamon extract in people with impaired fasting glucose that are overweight or obese. J Am Coll Nutr 2009; 28:16-21.
  • Safdar M, Khan A., Khan MMA, Siddique M. Effect of various doses of cinnamon on blood glucose in diabetic individuals. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2004;3:268-272.
  • Shan B, Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H. Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2005;53(20):7749-7759.
  • USDA 2009: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) [Internet]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees (Lauraceae) Diels. Last updated: 05-Oct-2009; Accessed 2012 May 23]. Available from:
  • WHO 1999: World Health Organization. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 1. Geneva (CH): World Health Organization; 1999.

References reviewed

  • Altschuler JA, Casella SJ, MacKenzie TA, Curtis KM. The effects of cinnamon on A1C among adolescence with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 30:813- 816, 2007
  • Anderson RA, Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, Schmidt WF, Khan A, Flanagan VP, et al. Isolation and characterization of polyphenol type-A polymers from cinnamon with insulin-like biological activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(1):65-70
  • ASHP 2005: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. American Hospital Formulary Service (AHFS) Drug Information. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005.
  • Baker W, Gutierrez-Williams G, White CM, Kluger J, Coleman CI. Effect of cinnamon on glucose control and lipid parameters. Diabetes Care 2008;31:41-43.
  • Bandara T, Uluwaduge I, Jansz ER. Bioactivity of cinnamon with special emphasis on diabetes mellitus: a review. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 2012;63(3):380-386.
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  • Brinker 2010: Brinker F. Final updates and additions for Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition, including extensive Appendices addressing common problematic conditions, medications and nutritional supplements, and influences on Phase I, II & III metabolism with new appendix on botanicals as complementary adjuncts with drugs. [Internet]. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications. [Updated July 13 2010; Accessed 2012 April 23]. Available from:
  • Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.
  • Brinker F. The Toxicity of Botanical Medicines. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 2000.
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  • Ziegenfuss TN, Hofheins JE, Mendel RW, Landis J., Anderson RA. Effects of a water-soluble cinnamon extract on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetic men and women. J Int Soc Sports Nut. 2006; 3: 45-53