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Drugs and Health Products

Monograph: Eleuthero

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Date: 2008-03-30

NHPID Name

Eleutherococcus senticosus (USDA 2008)

Proper Name(s)

Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) ( USDA 2008 )

Common Name(s)

Source Material

Root ( Barnes et al. 2007 , Hoffmann 2003 )

Route Of Administration

Oral

Dosage Form(s)

Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Dose(s)

Adults:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.91 - 6 Grams per day, dried root

See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.

Duration of use

Consult a health care practitioner for use beyond 1 month  (ESCOP 2003)

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):
  • Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist.
  • Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms worsen.
  • Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding  (Barnes et al. 2007, ESCOP 2003)
  • Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you have any type of acute infection  (Brinker 2001, Mills and Bone 2000)

Contraindication(s):
Do not use if you have high blood pressure  (Barnes et al. 2007, Brinker 2001, Blumenthal et al. 2000, Mills and Bone 2000, McGuffin et al. 1997)

Known Adverse Reaction(s):
No statement is required

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
  • The medicinal ingredient may comply with the specifications outlined in the Eleuthero Monograph published in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia or the Eleutherococcus Monograph published in the British or European Pharmacopoeias.

References cited

  • Barnes J, Anderson LA, Philipson JD. 2007. Herbal Medicines, 3rd edition. London (GB): Pharmaceutical Press.
  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, editors. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.
  • Bradley PR, editor. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 2. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medicine Association; 2006.
  • Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.
  • ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme; 2003.
  • Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. 1997. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Toronto (ON): Churchill Livingstone.
  • USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

References reviewed

  • Asano K, Takahashi T, Miyashita M, Matsuzaka A, Muramatsu S, Kuboyama M, Kugo H, Imai J. Effect of Eleuthero senticosus Extract on Human Physical Working Capacity. Planta Medica. 1986; 52(3): 175-177.
  • BHP 1996: British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medical Association; 1996.
  • Bohn B, Nebe CT, Birr C. Flow-cytometric studies with Eleutherococcus senticosus extract as an immunomodulatory agent. Arzneimittelforschung. 1987;37(10):1193-1196.
  • Cicero A, Derosa G, Brillante R, Bernardu R, Nascetti S, Gaddi A. Effects of Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: A randomized clinical trial. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Supplement. 2004;(9)69-73.
  • Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Chavin KD, Taylor RM, Markowitz JS. Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) effects on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity in normal volunteers. Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2003;31(5)519-522.
  • Eschbach P, Webster M, Boyd J, McArthur P, Evetovich T. The effect of Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus Senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance during prolonged cycling. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2000;10(4):444-451.
  • Gaffney B, Hügel H, Rich P. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sciences. 2001;70(4):431-442.
  • Hartz A, Bentler S, Noyes R, Hoehns J, Logemann C, Sinift Y, Butani W, Wang W, Brake K, Ernst M, Kautzman H. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian Ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychological Medicine. 2004;34(1):51-61.
  • Kaloeva ZD. Effect of the glycosides of Eleutherococcus senticosus on the hemodynamic indices of children with hypotensive states. Farmakologiia Toksikologiia 1986;49(5):73.
  • Mills E, Dugoua J, Perri D, Koren G. Herbal Medicines in Pregnancy and Lactation: An Evidence-Based Approach. London (UK): Taylor and Francis Medical; 2006.
  • Mills S. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalsim. Wellingborough (UK): Thorsons Publishers Ltd; 1985.
  • Szolomicki S, Samochowiec L, Wójcicki J, Drozdzik M. The influence of active components of Eleutherococcus senticosus on Cellular Defence and Physical Fitness in Man. Phytotherapy Research. 2000;14(1)30-35.
  • Wu Y, Wang X, Li M, Compbell TC. [Effect of Ciwujia (Radix Acanthopanax senticosus) preparation on exercise performance under constant endurance load for the elderly]. Journal of Hygiene research. 1999;27(6)421-444. [in Chinese].

Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use

Dried root:

  • 2-3 g, per day (Bradley 2006; ESCOP 2003; Hoffmann 2003; Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 1-4 g, per day (Mills and Bone 2000)

Infusion:

2-3 g dried root, per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Directions for use:

Pour 150 ml of boiling water over dried root and infuse (Blumenthal et al. 2000).

Fluidextract:

  • 1-2 g dried equivalent, 1-3 times per day
    (1:1, 40% ethanol, 1-2 ml) (ESCOP 2003)
  • 2-3 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:1, 2-3 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Tincture:

  • 2-3 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:5, 10-15 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 1-4 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:2, 2-8 ml) (Mills and Bone 2000)

Solid extract:   

  • 0.91-4.88 g dried equivalent, per day
    (14-25:1, 40% ethanol, 0.065-0.195 g) (ESCOP 2003)
  • 2-4 g dried equivalent, per day
    (20:1, 0.1-0.2 g) (Hoffmann 2003)