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Drugs and Health Products

Monograph: Caraway

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Date: 2008-02-28

NHPID Name

Carum carvi (USDA 2008)

Proper Name(s)

Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) ( USDA 2008 )

Common Name(s)

Source Material

Seed ( Bradley 2006 , Blumenthal et al. 1998 )

Route Of Administration

Oral

Dosage Form(s)

Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Dose(s)

Children 1 - 3 years:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.3 - 2 Grams per day, dried seed (fruit)
Preparation: Oil, Essential (water steam distillation)

Dose(s): 18 - 260 Microlitres per day

Children 4 - 9 years:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.3 - 4 Grams per day, dried seed (fruit)

Children and adolescents 4 and over:

Preparation: Oil, Essential (water steam distillation)

Dose(s): 18 - 390 Microlitres per day

Infants 6 - 12 months:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.06 - 1 Grams per day, dried seed (fruit)
Preparation: Oil, Essential (water steam distillation)

Dose(s): 0.26 - 130 Microlitres per day

Adults and adolescents 10 and over:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.3 - 15 Grams per day, dried seed (fruit)

Adults:

Preparation: Oil, Essential (water steam distillation)

Dose(s): 18 - 600 Microlitres per day

See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.

Duration of use

No statement is required

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):
  • Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen  (ESCOP 2003)
  • Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are experiencing acute abdominal pain  (ESCOP 2003)
  • Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding

Contraindication(s):
Do not use if you are allergic to plants of the Apiaceae/Carrot family  (ESCOP 2003, Brinker 2001)

Known Adverse Reaction(s):
Hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy) has been known to occur; in which case, discontinue use  (ESCOP 2003, Brinker 2001)

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
  • The medicinal ingredient may comply with the specifications outlined in one of the following pharmacopoeial monographs: Caraway Fruit monograph in British Pharmacopoeia, Caraway Fruit monograph in European Pharmacopoeia, and Caraway monograph in US Pharamcopoeia.

References cited

  • Blumenthal M, Busse W, Goldberg A, Gruenwald J, Hall T, Riggins C, Rister R, editors. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin (TX): American Botanical Council; 1998.
  • Bradley PR, editor. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 2. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medicine Association; 2006.
  • Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.
  • Ellingwood F. 1983. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications [Reprint of 1919 original].
  • ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme; 2003.
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. 1983. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 2, 18th edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications [Reprint of 1898 original].
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 1, 18th edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 1983 [Reprint of 1898 original].
  • Grieve M. 1971. A Modern Herbal, Volume 1. New York (NY): Dover Publications [Reprint of 1931 Harcourt, Brace & Company publication].
  • Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
  • McIntyre A. Herbal Treatment of Children - Western and Ayurvedic Perspectives. Toronto (ON): Elsevier Limited; 2005.
  • Schilcher H. Phytotherapy in Paediatrics: Handbook for Physicians and Pharmacists. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm Scientific Publishers; 1997.
  • USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
  • Wichtl M, editor. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 3rd edition. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2004.
  • Wiersema J, León B. 1999. World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press LLC.

References reviewed

  • BHP 1983: British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Cowling (GB): British Herbal Medical Association; 1983.
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. 1997. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.
  • Moerman DE . 1998. Native American Ethnobotany. Portland (OR): Timber Press.
  • Williamson EM, Evans FJ, Wren RC. Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. Saffron Walden (GB): C.W. Daniel Company Limited; 1988.

Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use

SEED (FRUIT):

Adults ≥ 19 y:

Dried seed (fruit):

  • 0.5-2 g dried seed, 3 times per day (Bradley 2006)
  • 1.5-6 g dried seed, per day (ESCOP 2003)

Infusion:

  • 0.5-2 g dried seed, 3 times per day (Bradley 2006)
  • 1.5-2 g dried seed, 1-3 times per day (Wichtl 2004)
  • 1-5 g dried seed, 1-3 times per day (ESCOP 2003)
  • 3.5 g dried seed, 3 times per day (Hoffmann 2003)

Directions for use:

Pour 150 ml of boiling water over freshly crushed or powdered dried seeds. Infuse in a covered container for 10-15 minutes and strain (Wichtl 2004; ESCOP 2003; Hoffmann 2003).

Tincture:

  • 0.1-0.8 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day
    (1:5, 45% alcohol, 0.5-4 ml) (Bradley 2006)
  • 0.2-0.8 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day
    (1:5, 40% alcohol, 1-4 ml) (Hoffmann 2003)

Adolescents 10-18 y:

Dried seed (fruit):

1.5-6 g dried seed, per day (ESCOP 2003)

Infusion:

1-5 g dried seed, 1-3 times per day (ESCOP 2003)

Directions for use:

Pour 150 ml of boiling water over freshly crushed or powdered dried seeds. Infuse in a covered container for 10-15 minutes and strain (ESCOP 2003).

Children and adolescents 4-9 y:

Dried seed (fruit):

1-4 g dried seed, per day (ESCOP 2003)

Children 1-3 y:

Dried seed (fruit):

1-2 g dried seed, per day (ESCOP 2003)

Infants 6 mo - < 1 y:

Dried seed (fruit):

1 g dried seed, per day (ESCOP 2003)

Infusion:

0.06 g dried seed, per day (Bradley 2006)

Directions for use:

Pour 150 ml of boiling water over ½ tsp of freshly crushed or powdered dried seeds. Infuse in a covered container for 10-15 minutes and strain (Bradley 2006; Wichtl 2004). Take one teaspoonful of fresh infusion, per day.

3.6 g crushed or powdered dried seeds = 1 tsp
5 ml infusion = 1 tsp

OIL:

Adults ≥ 19 y:

  • 50-200 μl caraway oil, 3 times per day (Bradley 2006)
  • 6-20 μl of caraway oil (from 0.3-1 ml Concentrated Caraway Water BPC 1973), 3 times per day (Bradley 2006)
  • 190-390 μl (3-6 drops) caraway oil, per day (Blumenthal 1998)

Children and adolescents 4-18 y:

190-390 μl (3-6 drops) caraway oil, per day (ESCOP 2003)

Children 1-3 y:

130-260 μl (2-4 drops) caraway oil, per day (ESCOP 2003)

Infants 6 mo - < 1 y:

  • 0.26-0.38 μl of caraway oil (from 13-19 μl (2-3 drops) Concentrated Caraway Water BPC 1973), per day (Bradley 2006)
  • 60-130 μl (1-2 drops) caraway oil, per day (ESCOP 2003)