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Route Of Administration
Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.
Use(s) or Purpose(s)
Statement(s) to the effect of:
Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts
1.2 - 18 Grams
See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.
Duration of use
For occasional use only
(Berardi et al. 2002
, CPA 2002
Statement(s) to the effect of:
Caution(s) and Warning(s)
Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist.
Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms worsen.
Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are breastfeeding
Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you have diabetes
(Barnes et al. 2007, Brinker 2001)
Known Adverse Reaction(s)
Do not use if you are allergic to plants of the Asteraceae/Compositae/Daisy family
Do not use if you are pregnant
Hypersensitivity/allergy is known to occur, in which case, discontinue use
Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.
- The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
- The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
Barnes J, Anderson LA, Philipson JD. 2007. Herbal Medicines, 3rd edition. London (GB): Pharmaceutical Press.
Berardi RR, DeSimone EM, Newton GD, Oszko MA, Popovich NG, Rollins CJ, Shimp LA, Tietze KJ, editors. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An Interactive Approach to Self-Care, 13th edition. Washington (DC): American Pharmaceutical Association; 2002.
BHP 1983: British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Cowling (GB): British Herbal Medical Association; 1983.
BHP 1996: British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medical Association; 1996.
Bradley PR, editor. 1992. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 1. Bournemouth (GB): British Herbal Medicine Association.
Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.
Brinker F. Online Updates and Additions to Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 2007. [Accessed 2007-11-21]. Available from: http://www.eclecticherb.com/emp/updatesHCDI.html
CPA 2002: Canadian Pharmacists Association. Patient Self-Care. Helping Patients Make Therapeutic Choices. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Pharmacists Association; 2002.
Grieve M. 1971. A Modern Herbal, Volume 1. New York (NY): Dover Publications [Reprint of 1931 Harcourt, Brace & Company publication].
Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
Wichtl M, editor. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 3rd edition. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2004.
Williamson EM, Evans FJ, Wren RC. Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. Saffron Walden (GB): C.W. Daniel Company Limited; 1988.
Wren RC. 1907. Potter's Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. London (GB): Potter and Clark.
Barnes J, Anderson LA, Philipson JD. 2002. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals, 2nd edition. London (GB): The Pharmaceutical Press.
Bisset NG, Wichtl M, editors. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 2nd edition. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2001.
Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for Herbal Medicines, 1st edition. Montvale (NJ): Medical Economics Company; 1998.
Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
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Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use
2 - 6 g, 3 times per day (Bradley 1992)
2 - 6 g dried root, 3 times per day (BHP 1983)
2 - 6 g dried root, 3 times per day (Bradley 1992)
Directions for use:
Place dried root in 250 ml (1 cup) of water, bring to a boil, and simmer for 10 to 15 minutes (Hoffmann 2003).
2 - 6 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day (1:1, 25% ethanol, 2-6 ml) (Bradley 1992)
- 0.4 - 0.8 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day (1:5, 40% alcohol, 2-4 ml) (Hoffmann 2003)
- 1.6 - 2.4 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day (1:5, 25% ethanol, 8 - 12 ml (Bradley 1992)