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Betula alba L. (Betulaceae)
Betula pubescens Ehrh. (Betulaceae)
Route Of Administration
Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.
Use(s) or Purpose(s)
Statement(s) to the effect of:
Used in Herbal Medicines as a diuretic
, ESCOP 2003
, Hoffmann 2003
, Blumenthal et al. 1998
Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts
0.6 - 9 Grams
See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.
Duration of use
For occasional use only
(Berardi et al. 2002
, CPA 2002
Statement(s) to the effect of:
Caution(s) and Warning(s)
Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist.
Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms worsen.
Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding
Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you have oedema due to a kidney or cardiovascular disorder
(Bradley 2006, ESCOP 2003, Brinker 2001, Blumenthal et al. 1998)
No statement is required
Known Adverse Reaction(s)
Hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy) has been known to occur; in which case, discontinue use
Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.
- The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
- The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
- The medicinal ingredient may comply with the specifications outlined in the Birch Leaf Monographs published in the European or British Pharmacopoeias.
Berardi RR, DeSimone EM, Newton GD, Oszko MA, Popovich NG, Rollins CJ, Shimp LA, Tietze KJ, editors. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An Interactive Approach to Self-Care, 13th edition. Washington (DC): American Pharmaceutical Association; 2002.
Blumenthal M, Busse W, Goldberg A, Gruenwald J, Hall T, Riggins C, Rister R, editors. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin (TX): American Botanical Council; 1998.
Bradley PR, editor. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 2. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medicine Association; 2006.
Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.
CPA 2002: Canadian Pharmacists Association. Patient Self-Care. Helping Patients Make Therapeutic Choices. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Pharmacists Association; 2002.
ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme; 2003.
Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
Brinker F. 2010. Online Updates and Additions to Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications. [Updated 2010 July 13; Accessed 2013 January 30]. Available from: http://www.eclecticherb.com/emp/updatesHCDI.html
Grieve M. 1971. A Modern Herbal, Volume 1. New York (NY): Dover Publications [Reprint of 1931 Harcourt, Brace & Company publication].
McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. 1997. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.
Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use
2 - 3 g, several times per day [not to exceed 9 g per day] (Blumenthal et al. 1998)
- 2 - 3 g dried leaf, several times per day [not to exceed 9 g per day] (Bradley 2006)
- 2 - 3 g dried leaf, 2-3 times per day (ESCOP 2003)
Directions for use:
Pour 250 ml of boiling water on dried leaf and steep for 10 minutes (Hoffmann 2003).
- 0.2 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day (1:10, 2 ml) (ESCOP 2003)
- 0.2 - 0.4 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day (1:5, 25% alcohol, 1-2 ml) (Hoffmann 2003)