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Monograph: Turmeric - Oral

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This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLA) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient. It is a referenced document to be used as a labelling standard. Note: Text in parentheses is additional optional information which can be included on the PLA and product labels at the applicant's discretion. The solidus (/) indicates that the terms are synonyms or that the statements are synonymous. Either term or statement may be selected by the applicant.

Date: 2010-02-25

NHPID Name

Curcuma longa (USDA 2008)

Proper Name(s)

Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) ( USDA 2008 )

Common Name(s)

Turmeric ( McGuffin et al 2000 )

Source Material

Rhizome ( PPRC 2005 , ESCOP 2003 , Blumenthal et al. 2000 )

Route Of Administration

Oral ( Blumenthal et al. 2000 , ESCOP 2003 )

Dosage Form(s)

  • The acceptable pharmaceutical dosage forms include, but are not limited to capsules, chewables (e.g. gummies, tablets), liquids, powders, strips or tablets.
  • This monograph is not intended to include foods or food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Dose(s)

Adults:

Antioxidant
Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): not to exceed 9 Grams per day, dried rhizome
Ayurveda
Preparation: Fluid Extract, Tincture and Powder

Dose(s): 1 - 4 Grams per day, dried rhizome powder
Digestive aid; Relief of flatulent dyspepsia; Hepatoprotectant; Bile excretion; Anti-inflammatory
Preparation: All Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 1 - 9 Grams per day, dried rhizome 3-5 Percent Curcuminoids
Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 1 - 9 Grams per day, dried rhizome
TCM
Preparation: Decoction All

Dose(s): 3 - 9 Grams per day, dried rhizome
Directions For Use: Prepare dried rhizome as a decoction (PPRC 2005)


See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.

Duration of use

No statement is required

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):
  • Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant  (ESCOP 2003, Brinker 2001, McGuffin et al. 1997)
  • Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you have gallstones or a bile duct obstruction  (ESCOP 2003, Brinker 2001, McGuffin et al. 1997)
  • Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you have stomach ulcers or excess stomach acid  (Brinker 2001, McGuffin et al. 1997)
  • Digestive aid; Relief of flatulent dyspepsia; Hepatoprotectant; Bile excretion; Anti-inflammatory; TCM; Ayurveda:
    Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen

Contraindication(s):
No statement is required

Known Adverse Reaction(s):
No statement is required

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
  • The medicinal ingredient may comply with the specifications outlined in the Turmeric, Powdered Turmeric Monographs published in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP 32)

References cited

  • API 2001 [1990]. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, 1st edition, Part I, Volume I. Delhi (IN): The Controller of Publications; [Reprint of 1990 publication].
  • Bensky D, Gamble A. 1993. Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica. Revised Edition. Seattle (WA): Eastland Press, Incorporated.
  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinkmann J, editors. 2000. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications
  • Boon H, Smith M. 2004. The Complete Natural Medicine Guide to the 50 Most Common Medicinal Herbs. Toronto (ON): Robert Rose Inc.
  • Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.
  • ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. 2003. Exeter (GB): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme
  • Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB. 2008. Curcumin as "Curecumin": From kitchen to clinic. Biochemical Pharmacology 75:787-809.
  • Kapoor LD. 2001. Handbook of Medicinal Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton (FL): CRC press LLC.
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. 1997. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Silver Spring (MD): American Herbal Products Association
  • Mills E, Dugoua J, Perri D, Koren G. 2006. Herbal Medicines in Pregnancy and Lactation: An Evidence-Based Approach. London (GB): Taylor and Francis Medical.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Toronto (ON): Churchill Livingstone
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
  • Murthy KRS. 2004. Bhavaprakasha of Bhavmisra, Volume 1. Varanasi (IND): Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy.
  • O'Neil MJ, Heckelman PE, Koch CB, Roman KJ, editors. 2009. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 14th edition. Electronic version [online]. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck & Co., Inc. [Accessed 2009 November 27]. Available at: http://www.medicinescomplete.com/mc/merck/current/monographs.htm
  • Paranjpe P. 2005. Indian Medicinal Plants- Forgotten Healers (A Guide to Ayurvedic Herbal Medicine). Delhi (IND): Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan.
  • PPRC 2005: Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, Volume 1, English edition 2005. Beijing (CN): The State Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People's Republic of China.
  • USDA 2008: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Genetics Resource Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) [online database]. Curcuma longa L. Beltsville (MD): National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. [Accessed 2009 November 13]. Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
  • USP 32: United States Pharmacopoeial Convention. 2009. United States Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary (USP 32-NF27). Rockville (MD): The United States Pharmacopeial Convention
  • Wichtl M, editor. 2004. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 3rd edition. Stuttgart (DE): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers.
  • Williamson EM, editor. 2002. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh (GB): Churchill Livingstone.
  • Williamson EM. 2003. Potter's Herbal Cyclopaedia: The Authoritative Reference work on Plants with a Known Medical Use. Saffron Walden (GB): The C.W. Daniel Company Limited.
  • Winston D, Kuhn MA. 2008. Winston and Kuhn's Herbal Therapy and Supplements. A Scientific and Traditional Approach, 2nd edition. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
  • Wren RC. 1907. Potter's Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. London (GB): Potter and Clark.

References reviewed

  • Aggarwal BB, Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB. 2008. Curcumin as "Curecumin": From kitchen to clinic. Biochemical Pharmacology 75:787-809.
  • Araújo CA, Leon LL. 2001. Abstract: Biological activities of Curcuma longa L. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96(5):723-728.
  • Deodhar SD, Sethi R, Srimal RC. 1980. Preliminary studies on antirheumatic activity of curcumin (di-feruloyl methane). Indian Journal of Medical Research 71:632-634.
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. 1983. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 2, 18th edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications [Reprint of 1898 original].
  • Felter HW. 1983. The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications [Reprint of 1922 original].
  • Funk JL, Oyarzo JN, Frye JB, Chen G, Lantz RC, Jolad SD, Sólyom AM, Timmermann BN. 2006. Turmeric extracts containing curcuminoids prevent experimental rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Natural Products 69(3):351-355.
  • Gerard J. 1975. The Herbal or General History of Plants. The Complete 1633 Edition as Revised and Enlarged by Thomas Johnson. NY (NY): Dover Publications.
  • Grieve M. 1971. A Modern Herbal, Volume 2. New York (NY): Dover Publications [Reprint of 1931 Harcourt, Brace & Company publication].
  • Hatcher H, Planalp R, Cho J, Torti FM, Torti SV. 2008. Curcumin: From ancient medicine to current clinical trials. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 65:1631-1652.
  • Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
  • Jurenka JS. 2009. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Alternative Medicine Review 14(2):141-153.
  • Khory RN, Katrak NN. 1999. Materia Medica of India and their Therapeutics. Delhi (IN): Komal Prakashan.
  • Kiso Y, Suzuki Y, Watanabe N, Oshima Y, Hikino H. 1983. Antihepatotoxic principles of Curcuma longa rhizomes. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 49:185-187.
  • Kohli K, Ali J, Ansari J, Raheman Z. 2005. Curcumin: a natural antiinflammatory agent. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 37(3):141-147.
  • Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, Gandage SG, Patwardhan B. 1991. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 33:91-95.
  • Mills S. 1985. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalsim. Wellingborough (GB): Thorsons Publishers Ltd.
  • Moerman DE. 1998. Native American Ethnobotany. Portland (OR): Timber Press.
  • Rivera-Espinoza Y, Muriel P. 2009. Pharmacological actions of curcumin in liver diseases or damage. Liver International 29(10):1457-1466.
  • Satoskar RR, Shah SJ, Shenoy SG. 1986. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 24(12):651-654
  • Srimal R, Dhawan B. 1973. Pharmacology of diferuloyl methane (curcumin), a non-sterodal anti-inflammatory agent. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 25:447-452.

Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use

ORAL:

Powdered dried rhizome:

  • 1-4 g, per day (Mills and Bone 2005; Williamson 2003; Kapoor 2001)
  • 0.5-1 g, several times per day, between meals (Wichtl 2004)
  • 1.5-3 g per day (ESCOP 2003)
  • 1-3 g, per day (API 2001)

Cut rhizome:

1.5-3 g, per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Infusion:

  • 3-9 g dried rhizome, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 1.3 g dried rhizome, 2 times per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • Directions for use: Pour 150 ml of boiling water on dried rhizome and steep for 10 to 15 minutes (Blumenthal et al. 2000).

Fluid extract:

  • 1.5-3 g dried equivalent, per day (1:1, 1.5-3 ml)(Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Tincture:

2 g dried equivalent, per day (1:5, 10 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

TCM:

  • 3-9 g dried rhizome, per day (PPRC 2005; Bensky and Gamble 1993)
  • Directions for use: Prepare dry rhizome as a decoction (PPRC 2005).

Ayurveda:

  • 1-4 g dried rhizome powder, per day (Williamson 2002)
  • 1-3 g dried rhizome powder, per day (API 2001)
  • 1-4 g dried rhizome powder, per day (Kapoor 2001)
  • Directions for use (topical): Apply to the affected area as needed.