Health Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada
Drugs and Health Products

Monograph: Turmeric - Oral

Help on accessing alternative formats, such as Portable Document Format (PDF), Microsoft Word and PowerPoint (PPT) files, can be obtained in the alternate format help section.

This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLA) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient. It is a referenced document to be used as a labelling standard. Note: Text in parentheses is additional optional information which can be included on the PLA and product labels at the applicant's discretion. The solidus (/) indicates that the terms are synonyms or that the statements are synonymous. Either term or statement may be selected by the applicant.

Date: 2018-07-31


Curcuma longa (Germplasm Resources Information Network Taxonomy)

Proper Name(s)

Curcuma longa ( USDA 2018 )

Common Name(s)

Source Material

Rhizome ( PPRC 2005 , ESCOP 2003 , Blumenthal et al. 2000 )

Route Of Administration

Oral ( Blumenthal et al. 2000 , ESCOP 2003 )

Dosage Form(s)

  • The acceptable pharmaceutical dosage forms include, but are not limited to capsules, chewables (e.g. gummies, tablets), liquids, powders, strips or tablets.
  • This monograph is not intended to include foods or food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:



Dose(s): 1 Day per day

See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.

Duration of use

No statement is required

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):
  • Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/ physician if symptoms persist or worsen.
  • Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/physician prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, have gallstones, a bile duct obstruction, stomach ulcers or excess stomach acid.

No statement is required

Known Adverse Reaction(s):
No statement is required

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.


  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
  • The medicinal ingredient may comply with the specifications outlined in the Turmeric, Powdered Turmeric Monographs published in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP 32)

References cited

  • API 2001 [1990]. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, 1st edition, Part I, Volume I. Delhi (IN): The Controller of Publications; [Reprint of 1990 publication].
  • Bensky D, Gamble A. 1993. Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica. Revised Edition. Seattle (WA): Eastland Press, Incorporated.
  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinkmann J, editors. 2000. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications
  • Boon H, Smith M. 2004. The Complete Natural Medicine Guide to the 50 Most Common Medicinal Herbs. Toronto (ON): Robert Rose Inc.
  • Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.
  • ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. 2003. Exeter (GB): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme
  • Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB. 2008. Curcumin as "Curecumin": From kitchen to clinic. Biochemical Pharmacology 75:787-809.
  • Kapoor LD. 2001. Handbook of Medicinal Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton (FL): CRC press LLC.
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. 1997. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Silver Spring (MD): American Herbal Products Association
  • Mills E, Dugoua J, Perri D, Koren G. 2006. Herbal Medicines in Pregnancy and Lactation: An Evidence-Based Approach. London (GB): Taylor and Francis Medical.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Toronto (ON): Churchill Livingstone
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
  • Murthy KRS. 2004. Bhavaprakasha of Bhavmisra, Volume 1. Varanasi (IND): Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy.
  • O'Neil MJ, Heckelman PE, Koch CB, Roman KJ, editors. 2009. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 14th edition. Electronic version [online]. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck & Co., Inc. [Accessed 2009 November 27]. Available at:
  • Paranjpe P. 2005. Indian Medicinal Plants- Forgotten Healers (A Guide to Ayurvedic Herbal Medicine). Delhi (IND): Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan.
  • PPRC 2005: Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, Volume 1, English edition 2005. Beijing (CN): The State Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People's Republic of China.
  • USDA 2008: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Genetics Resource Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) [online database]. Curcuma longa L. Beltsville (MD): National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. [Accessed 2009 November 13]. Available from:
  • USP 32: United States Pharmacopoeial Convention. 2009. United States Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary (USP 32-NF27). Rockville (MD): The United States Pharmacopeial Convention
  • Wichtl M, editor. 2004. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 3rd edition. Stuttgart (DE): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers.
  • Williamson EM, editor. 2002. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh (GB): Churchill Livingstone.
  • Williamson EM. 2003. Potter's Herbal Cyclopaedia: The Authoritative Reference work on Plants with a Known Medical Use. Saffron Walden (GB): The C.W. Daniel Company Limited.
  • Winston D, Kuhn MA. 2008. Winston and Kuhn's Herbal Therapy and Supplements. A Scientific and Traditional Approach, 2nd edition. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
  • Wren RC. 1907. Potter's Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. London (GB): Potter and Clark.

References reviewed

  • Aggarwal BB, Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB. 2008. Curcumin as "Curecumin": From kitchen to clinic. Biochemical Pharmacology 75:787-809.
  • Araújo CA, Leon LL. 2001. Abstract: Biological activities of Curcuma longa L. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96(5):723-728.
  • Deodhar SD, Sethi R, Srimal RC. 1980. Preliminary studies on antirheumatic activity of curcumin (di-feruloyl methane). Indian Journal of Medical Research 71:632-634.
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. 1983. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 2, 18th edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications [Reprint of 1898 original].
  • Felter HW. 1983. The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications [Reprint of 1922 original].
  • Funk JL, Oyarzo JN, Frye JB, Chen G, Lantz RC, Jolad SD, Sólyom AM, Timmermann BN. 2006. Turmeric extracts containing curcuminoids prevent experimental rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Natural Products 69(3):351-355.
  • Gerard J. 1975. The Herbal or General History of Plants. The Complete 1633 Edition as Revised and Enlarged by Thomas Johnson. NY (NY): Dover Publications.
  • Grieve M. 1971. A Modern Herbal, Volume 2. New York (NY): Dover Publications [Reprint of 1931 Harcourt, Brace & Company publication].
  • Hatcher H, Planalp R, Cho J, Torti FM, Torti SV. 2008. Curcumin: From ancient medicine to current clinical trials. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 65:1631-1652.
  • Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
  • Jurenka JS. 2009. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Alternative Medicine Review 14(2):141-153.
  • Khory RN, Katrak NN. 1999. Materia Medica of India and their Therapeutics. Delhi (IN): Komal Prakashan.
  • Kiso Y, Suzuki Y, Watanabe N, Oshima Y, Hikino H. 1983. Antihepatotoxic principles of Curcuma longa rhizomes. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 49:185-187.
  • Kohli K, Ali J, Ansari J, Raheman Z. 2005. Curcumin: a natural antiinflammatory agent. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 37(3):141-147.
  • Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, Gandage SG, Patwardhan B. 1991. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 33:91-95.
  • Mills S. 1985. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalsim. Wellingborough (GB): Thorsons Publishers Ltd.
  • Moerman DE. 1998. Native American Ethnobotany. Portland (OR): Timber Press.
  • Rivera-Espinoza Y, Muriel P. 2009. Pharmacological actions of curcumin in liver diseases or damage. Liver International 29(10):1457-1466.
  • Satoskar RR, Shah SJ, Shenoy SG. 1986. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 24(12):651-654
  • Srimal R, Dhawan B. 1973. Pharmacology of diferuloyl methane (curcumin), a non-sterodal anti-inflammatory agent. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 25:447-452.

Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use


Powdered dried rhizome:

  • 1-4 g, per day (Mills and Bone 2005; Williamson 2003; Kapoor 2001)
  • 0.5-1 g, several times per day, between meals (Wichtl 2004)
  • 1.5-3 g per day (ESCOP 2003)
  • 1-3 g, per day (API 2001)

Cut rhizome:

1.5-3 g, per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)


  • 3-9 g dried rhizome, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 1.3 g dried rhizome, 2 times per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • Directions for use: Pour 150 ml of boiling water on dried rhizome and steep for 10 to 15 minutes (Blumenthal et al. 2000).

Fluid extract:

  • 1.5-3 g dried equivalent, per day (1:1, 1.5-3 ml)(Blumenthal et al. 2000)


2 g dried equivalent, per day (1:5, 10 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)


  • 3-9 g dried rhizome, per day (PPRC 2005; Bensky and Gamble 1993)
  • Directions for use: Prepare dry rhizome as a decoction (PPRC 2005).


  • 1-4 g dried rhizome powder, per day (Williamson 2002)
  • 1-3 g dried rhizome powder, per day (API 2001)
  • 1-4 g dried rhizome powder, per day (Kapoor 2001)
  • Directions for use (topical): Apply to the affected area as needed.