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Drugs and Health Products

Monograph: Acai - Euterpe oleracea

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This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLAs) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient. Notes: (i) Text in parentheses is additional optional information which can be included on the PLA and product label at the applicant's discretion. (ii) The solidus (/) indicates that the terms and/or the statements are synonymous. Either term or statement may be selected by the applicant.

Date: 2013-01-15

NHPID Name

Euterpe oleracea (USDA 2008)

Proper Name(s)

Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Arecaceae) ( McGuffin et al. 2000 , USDA 1999 )

Common Name(s)

Source Material

Fruit ( Schreckinger et al. 2012 , Schauss et al. 2006 , Lichtenthäler et al. 2005 )

Route Of Administration

Oral

Dosage Form(s)

  • The acceptable pharmaceutical dosage forms include, but are not limited to capsules, chewables (e.g. gummies, tablets), liquids, powders, strips or tablets.
  • This monograph is not intended to include foods or food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Provides antioxidants  (Mertens-Talcot et al. 2008, Schauss et al. 2006, Lichtenthäler et al. 2005)

Dose(s)

Adults:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): not to exceed 14 Grams per day, dried fruit or dried fruit juice

Duration of use

No statement is required

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):
If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, consult a health care practitioner prior to use  (NS 2012, derMarderosian and Beutler 2008)

Contraindication(s):
No statement is required

Known Adverse Reaction(s):
Hypersensitivity/allergy has been known to occur to acai or plants of the Arecaceae family. In such a case, discontinue use  (NS 2012, derMarderosian and Beutler 2008)

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredients Database (NHPID).

References cited

  • derMarderosian A, Beutler JA, editors. The Review of Natural Products. [Acai: Date of issue January 2008]. St Louis (MO): Facts and Comparisons, Wolters Kluwer Health; Printed in 2008 and Updated to April 2012.
  • Faccolia S. Cornucopia II A source book of edible plants. Vista (CA): Kampong Publications; 1998.
  • Lichtenthäler R, Rodrigues RB, Maia JG, Papagiannopoulos M, Fabricius H, Marx F. Total oxidant scavenging capacities of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí) fruits. International Journal of Food Sciences And Nutrition 2005;56(1):53-64.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. Herbs of Commerce. 2nd edition. Silver Spring (MD): American Herbal Products Association; 2000.
  • Mertens-Talcott SU, Rios J, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Pacheco-Palencia LA, Meibohm B, Talcott ST, Derendorf H. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich açai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 2008;56(17):7796-7802.
  • Mors WB, Toledo Rizzini C, Alvares Pereira N, Defilipps RA. Medicinal Plants of Brazil. Algonac (MI): Reference Publications Inc.; 2000.
  • NS 2012: Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine. Acai (Euterpe oleracea) Natural Standard Professional Monograph, Copyright © 2012 [Internet]. [Accessed 2012 April 25]. Available from: http://naturalstandard.com/databases/herbssupplements/acai.asp
  • Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, Ou B, Huang D, Owens J, Agarwal A, Jensen GS, Hart AN, Shanbrom E. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (açai). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 2006;54(22):8604-8610.
  • Schreckinger ME, Lotton J, Lila MA, Gonzalez de Mejia E. Berries from South America: a comprehensive review on chemistry, health potential, and commercialization. Journal of Medicinal Food 2010;233-246.
  • Tonon RV, Brabet C, Hubinger MD. Anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity of spray-dried açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice produced with different carrier agents. Food Research International 2010;43(3):907-914.
  • USDA 1999: USDA ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) [Internet]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville: (MD). [Euterpe oleracea Mart. Last updated: 10-Feb-1999; Accessed 2012 April 25]. Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

References reviewed

  • Duke JA, Vazquez Martinez R. Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 1994.
  • Important Information about Acai Berry Products containing Prescription Medication. Ottawa (ON): Marketed Health Products Directorate. [Date Modified 2010 January 15; Accessed 2012 January 20]. Available from; http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/_2009/2009_197-eng.php
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 1997.
  • Monograph - Vitamin C. Ottawa (ON): Natural Health Products Directorate [Date Modified 2007 September 17; Accessed 2011 October 19]. Available from: http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/monoReq.do?id=182&lang=eng
  • Pozo-Insfran DD, Brenes CH, Talcott St. Phytochemical composition and pigment stability of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 2004;52(6):1539-1545.
  • Rocha APM, Carvalho LCRM, Sousa MAV, Madeira SVF, Sousa PJC, Tano T, Schini-Kerth VB, Resende AC, Soares de Moura R. Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí) extracts in mesenteric vascular bed of the rat. Vascular Pharmacology 2007;46:97-104.
  • Sosnowska J, Balslev H. American palm ethnomedicine: a meta-analysis. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2009;5:43