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Drugs and Health Products

Monograph: Stinging Nettle

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Date: 2008-01-30

NHPID Name

Urtica dioica (USDA 2008)

Proper Name(s)

Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) ( USDA 2008 )

Common Name(s)

Source Material


Route Of Administration

Oral

Dosage Form(s)

Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Herb top

Root
Used in Herbal Medicine to help reduce difficulty in urination associated with the early stages of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)  (Bradley 2006, Mills and Bone 2005, ESCOP 2003, Hoffmann 2003, Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Dose(s)

Adults:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): Herb top: 1.2 - 18 Grams per day, dried herb tops
Dose(s): Root: 0.3 - 24 Grams per day, dried root

See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.

Duration of use

Diuretic: For occasional use only  (Berardi et al. 2002, CPA 2002)

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):
Diuretic; Relief of rheumatic complaints; Relief of seasonal allergy symptoms; Help reduce urination difficulty:
Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen

Contraindication(s):
Do not use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding  (Barnes et al. 2007, Brinker 2001, Tilgner 1999)

Known Adverse Reaction(s):
No statement is required

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).

References cited

  • Barnes J, Anderson LA, Philipson JD. 2007. Herbal Medicines, 3rd edition. London (GB): Pharmaceutical Press.
  • Berardi RR, DeSimone EM, Newton GD, Oszko MA, Popovich NG, Rollins CJ, Shimp LA, Tietze KJ, editors. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An Interactive Approach to Self-Care, 13th edition. Washington (DC): American Pharmaceutical Association; 2002.
  • Bisset NG, Wichtl M, editors. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 2nd edition. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2001.
  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, editors. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.
  • Bradley PR, editor. 1992. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 1. Bournemouth (GB): British Herbal Medicine Association.
  • Bradley PR, editor. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 2. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medicine Association; 2006.
  • Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.
  • CPA 2002: Canadian Pharmacists Association. Patient Self-Care. Helping Patients Make Therapeutic Choices. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Pharmacists Association; 2002.
  • ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme; 2003.
  • Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
  • Tilgner S. Herbal Medicine from the Heart of the Earth. Creswell (OR): Wise Acre Press; 1999.
  • USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
  • Wren RC. 1907. Potter's Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. London (GB): Potter and Clark.

Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use

Aerial parts

Dried aerial parts:

  • 6 - 12 g, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 8 - 12 g per day, divided into 2-3 doses (ESCOP 2003)
  • 2 - 5 g, 3 times per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 3 - 6 g, 3 times per day (Bradley 1992)

Infusion:

  • 6 - 12 g dried aerial parts, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 3 - 5 g dried aerial parts, 1-3 times per day (ESCOP 20)
  • 2 - 5 g dried aerial parts, 3 times per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 3 - 6 g dried aerial parts, 3 times per day (Bradley 1992)

Directions for use:

Pour 150 ml of boiling water on dried aerial parts, and infuse for 10 to 15 minutes (Blumenthal et al. 2000).

Decoction:

2 - 5 g dried aerial parts, 3 times per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Directions for use:

Place dried aerial parts in 150 ml cold water and bring to a boil. Boil for 10 to 15 minutes (Blumenthal et al. 2000).

Fluid extract:

  • 6 - 12 g dried equivalent, per day (1:1, 6-12 ml) (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 2 - 5 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day (1:1, 2-5 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 2 - 4 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day (1:1, 25% ethanol, 2-4 ml) (Bradley 1992)

Tincture:

  • 1.4 - 2.8 g dried equivalent, per day (1:5, 7-14 ml) (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 0.5 - 1 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day (1:5, 40% alcohol, 2.5-5 ml) (Hoffman 2003)
  • 0.4 - 1.2 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day (1:5, 25% ethanol, 2-6 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000; Bradley 1992)

Root

Dried root:

  • 0.3 - 0.6 g, per day (Bradley 2006)
  • 4 - 6 g, per day (Mills and Bone 2005; Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Infusion:

  • 4 - 6 g dried root, per day (Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003)
  • 4 - 6 g dried root, 3-4 times per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Directions for use:

Pour 150 ml of boiling water on dried root, and infuse for 10 to 20 minutes (Blumenthal et al. 2000).

Decoction:

  • 4 - 6 g dried root, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 4 - 6 g dried root, 3-4 times per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Directions for use:

Place dried root in cold water, heat to boil and keep boiling for approximately 1 minute. Then, steep covered for 10 minutes (Blumenthal et al. 2000).

Fluid extract:

  • 1.5 - 7.5 g dried equivalent, per day (1:1, 1.5-7.5 ml) (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 4.5 - 7.5 g dried equivalent, per day (1:1, 45% ethanol, 4.5-7.5 ml) (ESCOP 2003)
  • 1.5 g dried equivalent, 3 to 4 times per day (1:1, 1.5 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Tincture:

  • 3 g dried equivalent, per day (1:5, 40% ethanol, 15 ml) (ESCOP 2003)
  • 0.5 - 1 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day (1:5, 40% alcohol, 2.5-5 ml) (Hoffman 2003)
  • 1 - 1.5 g dried equivalent, 3 to 4 times per day (1:5, 5-7.5 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Solid extract:

  • 2.1 - 8.4 g dried equivalent, per day (7-14:1, 20% methanol, 0.3-0.6 g) (ESCOP 2003)
  • 4.5 - 12.1 g dried equivalent, per day (12-16:1, 70% ethanol, 0.378-0.756 g) (ESCOP 2003)