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Monograph: Peppermint

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Date: 2008-02-20

NHPID Name

Mentha x piperita (USDA 2008)

Proper Name(s)

Mentha x piperita (Lamiaceae) ( USDA 2008 )

Common Name(s)

Peppermint ( McGuffin et al. 2000 )

Source Material

Leaf ( ESCOP 2003 )

Route Of Administration

Oral

Dosage Form(s)

Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:

General


Oil, Essential (water steam distillation)
Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine to help relieve nausea and vomiting  (Boon and Smith 2004, Hoffmann 2003, Blumenthal et al. 2000, Felter and Lloyd 1983[1898])

Dose(s)

Children 2 - 4 years:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.2 - 2 Grams per day, leaf
Preparation: Oil, Essential (water steam distillation)

Dose(s): 10 - 130 Microlitres per day

Children and adolescents 5 - 9 years:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.3 - 3 Grams per day, leaf
Preparation: Oil, Essential (water steam distillation)

Dose(s): 15 - 200 Microlitres per day

Adolescents 10 - 14 years:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.6 - 6 Grams per day, leaf
Preparation: Oil, Essential (water steam distillation)

Dose(s): 30 - 400 Microlitres per day

Adults and adolescents 15 and over:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 1.2 - 12 Grams per day, leaf
Preparation: Oil, Essential (water steam distillation)

Dose(s): 60 - 800 Microlitres per day

  • Adult dose supported by the following references: Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003; Blumenthal et al. 2000; Bradley 1992.
  • Children and adolescent doses were calculated as a proportion of the adult dose (JC 2012).
  • See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.
  • The use of peppermint distilled oil in children and adolescents is supported by the following references: McIntyre 2005; Bove 1996.
  • The use of peppermint leaf in children and adolescents is supported by the following references: McIntyre 2005; Bove 1996.

Duration of use

No statement is required

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):

Contraindication(s):
No statement is required

Known Adverse Reaction(s):

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
  • The medicinal ingredient may comply with the specifications outlined in the Peppermint, Peppermint Oil, Peppermint Spirit, or Peppermint Water Monographs published in the US Pharmacopoeia or the Peppermint Leaf or Peppermint Oil Monographs published in the European or British Pharmacopoeias.

References cited

  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, editors. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.
  • Boon H, Smith MJ. 2004. The Complete Natural Medicine Guide to the 50 Most Common Medicinal Herbs, 2nd edition. Toronto (ON): Robert Rose Inc.
  • Bove M. An Encyclopedia of Natural Healing for Children and Infants. New Canaan (CT): Keats Publishing, Incorporated; 1996
  • Bradley PR, editor. 1992. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 1. Bournemouth (GB): British Herbal Medicine Association.
  • Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.
  • Brinker F. Online Updates and Additions to Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 2007. [Accessed 2007-11-21]. Available from: http://www.eclecticherb.com/emp/updatesHCDI.html
  • ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme; 2003.
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 1, 18th edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 1983 [Reprint of 1898 original].
  • Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
  • JC 2008: Justice Canada. Food and Drug Regulations. (C.01.021). Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; 2008. [Accessed 2008-01-31] Available from: http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/F-27/C.R.C.-c.870/text.html
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
  • McIntyre A. Herbal Treatment of Children - Western and Ayurvedic Perspectives. Toronto (ON): Elsevier Limited; 2005.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
  • USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use

Leaf:

Dried leaf:

  • 6-12 g, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 3-6 g, per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 2-3 g, 3 times per day (Bradley 1992)

Infusion:

  • 6-12 g dried leaf, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 1.5-3 g dried leaf, 3 times per day (ESCOP 2003)
  • 2 g dried leaf, 2 to 3 times per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 2-3 g dried leaf, 3 times per day (Bradley 1992)

Directions for use:

  • Pour 250 ml of boiling water over dried leaf and infuse in a covered container for 10 minutes. This may be drunk as often as desired (Hoffmann 2003).
  • Take on an empty stomach (Boon and Smith 2004).

Fluidextract:

2 g dried equivalent, 2 to 3 times per day
(1:1, 2 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Tincture:

  • 2 g dried equivalent, 2 to 3 times per day
    (1:5, 10 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 0.4-0.6 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day
    (1:5, in 45% ethanol, 2-3 ml) (Bradley 1992)

Directions for use:

Take on an empty stomach (Boon and Smith 2004).

Solid extract:

1.54-2.57 g dried equivalent, 2 to 3 times per day
(3.5-4.5:1, 0.44-0.57 g) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Distilled oil:

  • 20-80 µl (1-4 drops), 3 times per day (ESCOP 2003)
  • 400 -800 µl (6-12 drops), per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Directions for use:

Take drops in water or on a lump of sugar (ESCOP 2003).