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McGuffin et al. 2000
Route Of Administration
Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.
Use(s) or Purpose(s)
Statement(s) to the effect of:
Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine as an expectorant to help relieve the symptoms of bronchitis and catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract
(Wichtl 2004, Williamson 2003, BHP 1983, Remington and Woods 1918)
Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine as a demulcent to help relieve sore throat
(Williamson 2003, Bisset and Wichtl 2001, BHP 1983, Sayre 1917)
Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine as an astringent and/or a demulcent to help relieve diarrhoea
(Wichtl 2004, Williamson 2003, BHP 1983, Lust 1974, Sayre 1917)
Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine as an astringent and/or a demulcent to help relieve haemorrhoids
(Williamson 2003, Lust 1974, Sayre 1917)
Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine as a mild diuretic
(Bisset and Wichtl 2001, Lust 1974)
Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts
2 - 4 Grams
3 times per day,
See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.
Duration of use
For occasional use only
(Berardi et al. 2002
, CPA 2002
Statement(s) to the effect of:
Caution(s) and Warning(s)
Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist.
Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms worsen.
Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding
No statement is required
Known Adverse Reaction(s)
No statement is required
Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.
- The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
- The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
Berardi RR, DeSimone EM, Newton GD, Oszko MA, Popovich NG, Rollins CJ, Shimp LA, Tietze KJ, editors. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An Interactive Approach to Self-Care, 13th edition. Washington (DC): American Pharmaceutical Association; 2002.
BHP 1983: British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Cowling (GB): British Herbal Medical Association; 1983.
Bisset NG, Wichtl M, editors. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 2nd edition. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2001.
CPA 2002: Canadian Pharmacists Association. Patient Self-Care. Helping Patients Make Therapeutic Choices. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Pharmacists Association; 2002.
Lust J. The Herb Book. New York (NY): Bantam Books Incorporated, published by arrangement with Benedict Lust Publications; 1987.
McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
Remington JP and Woods HC, editors. The Dispensatory of the United States of America, 20th edition. 1918. [Accessed 2008-02-14]. Available from: http://www.swsbm.com/homepage/
Sayre LE. A Manuel of Organic Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy, 4th edition. Philadelphia (PA): P. Blakiston's Son & Co; 1917. [Accessed 2008-02-14]. Available from: http://www.swsbm.com/SayreMM/SayreMM.html
USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
Wichtl M, editor. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 3rd edition. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2004.
Wiersema J, León B. 1999. World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press LLC.
Williamson EM. Potter's Herbal Cyclopaedia: The Authoritative Reference work on Plants with a Known Medical Use. Saffron Walden (UK): The C.W. Daniel Company Limited; 2003.
Blumenthal M, Busse W, Goldberg A, Gruenwald J, Hall T, Riggins C, Rister R, editors. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin (TX): American Botanical Council; 1998.
Chevallier A. 1996. The Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. New York (NY): Dorling Kindersley.
Duke JA, Bogenschutz-Godwin MJ, DuCellier J, Duke PK. 2002. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.
Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for Herbal Medicines, 3rd edition. Montvale (NJ): Thompson PDR; 2004.
McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. 1997. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.
Williamson EM, Evans FJ, Wren RC. Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. Saffron Walden (GB): C.W. Daniel Company Limited; 1988.
Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use
2 - 4 g, 3 times per day (Williamson at al. 2003; BHP 1983)
2 - 4 g dried leaf, 3 times per day (BHP 1983)
2 - 4 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day (1:1, 25% alcohol, 2-4 ml) (BHP 1983)