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Monograph: Linden, European

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T. x europaea L. is a hybrid of T. cordata and T. platyphyllos.

Date: 2008-02-13

NHPID Name

Tilia x europaea (USDA 2008)

Proper Name(s)

Common Name(s)

Source Material

Flower ( Bradley 1992 , Felter and Lloyd 1983[1898] )

Route Of Administration

Oral

Dosage Form(s)

Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Dose(s)

Children 2 - 4 years:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.2 - 2 Grams per day, flower

Children and adolescents 5 - 9 years:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.4 - 3 Grams per day, flower

Adolescents 10 - 14 years:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.8 - 6 Grams per day, flower

Adults and adolescents 15 and over:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 1.5 - 12 Grams per day, flower

  • Adolescents and adults include pregnant and breastfeeding women
  • Adult dose supported by the following references: Hoffmann 2003; Blumenthal et al. 2000; Bradley 1992; Felter and Lloyd 1983[1898].
  • See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.
  • The use of linden in children and adolescents is supported by the following references: McIntyre 2005; Schilcher 1997; Bove 1996.

Duration of use

No statement is required

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):
  • Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist.
  • Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms worsen.

Contraindication(s):
No statement is required

Known Adverse Reaction(s):
Hypersensitivity/allergy is known to occur, in which case, discontinue use  (Mills and Bone 2005, De Smet et al. 1993)

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).

References cited

  • BHP 1996: British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medical Association; 1996.
  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, editors. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.
  • Bove M. An Encyclopedia of Natural Healing for Children and Infants. New Canaan (CT): Keats Publishing, Incorporated; 1996
  • Bradley PR, editor. 1992. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 1. Bournemouth (GB): British Herbal Medicine Association.
  • De Smet PAGM, Keller K, Hansel R, Chandler RF, editors. Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs, Volume 2. Berlin (DE): Springer-Verlag; 1993.
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 1, 18th edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 1983 [Reprint of 1898 original].
  • Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
  • JC 2008: Justice Canada. Food and Drug Regulations. (C.01.021). Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; 2008. [Accessed 2008-01-31] Available from: http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/F-27/C.R.C.-c.870/text.html
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
  • McIntyre A. Herbal Treatment of Children - Western and Ayurvedic Perspectives. Toronto (ON): Elsevier Limited; 2005.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
  • Schilcher H. Phytotherapy in Paediatrics: Handbook for Physicians and Pharmacists. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm Scientific Publishers; 1997.
  • USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
  • Wichtl M, editor. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 3rd edition. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2004.
  • Wiersema J, León B. 1999. World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press LLC.

References reviewed

  • Barnes J, Anderson LA, Philipson JD. 2007. Herbal Medicines, 3rd edition. London (GB): Pharmaceutical Press.
  • Hutchens AR. Indian Herbology of North America. Boston (MA): Shambhala Publications, Inc.; 1991.
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. 1997. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Toronto (ON): Churchill Livingstone.

Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use

Dried flower:

2-4 g, per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Infusion:

  • 1.8 g dried flower, 3 times per day (Hoffmann 2003)
  • 1.8-2 g dried flower, 1-2 times per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 2-4 g dried flower, 3 times per day (Bradley 1992)
  • 2-2.6 g (30 or 40 grains) dried flower, per day (Felter and Lloyd 1983 [1898])

Directions for use:

Pour 150 ml to 473 ml (1 pint) of boiling water over dried flowers and infuse for 10-15 minutes (Hoffmann 2003; Blumenthal et al. 2000; Felter and Lloyd 1983 [1898]).
1.8 g = 1 tsp. (Wichtl 2004)

Fluidextract:

  • 2 g dried equivalent, 1-2 times per day
    (1:1, 2 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 2-4 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day
    (1:1, 25% alcohol, 2-4 ml) (Bradley 1992)

Tincture:

  • 0.5-1 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day
    (1:5, 40% alcohol, 2.5-5 ml) (Hoffmann 2003)
  • 2 g dried equivalent, 1-2 times per day
    (1:5, 10 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 0.8-2 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day
    (1:5, 25% alcohol, 4-10 ml) (Bradley 1992)