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Monograph: Licorice

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Date: 2008-02-25

NHPID Name

Glycyrrhiza glabra (USDA 2008)

Proper Name(s)

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae) ( BP 2008 , USDA 2007 )

Common Name(s)

Licorice ( McGuffin et al. 2000 )

Source Material

Root and stolon ( Mills and Bone 2005 , ESCOP 2003 , Blumenthal et al. 2000 , Bradley 1992 )

Route Of Administration

Oral

Dosage Form(s)

Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Dose(s)

Children aged 4:

Preparation: All Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 10-100 Milligrams Glycyrrhizin per day
Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.1 - 2.5 Grams per day, dried root and stolon

Children and adolescents 5 - 9 years:

Preparation: All Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 15-150 Milligrams Glycyrrhizin per day
Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.15 - 3.75 Grams per day, dried root and stolon

Adolescents 10 - 14 years:

Preparation: All Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 30-300 Milligrams Glycyrrhizin per day
Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.3 - 7.5 Grams per day, dried root and stolon

Adults and adolescents 15 and over:

Preparation: All Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 60-600 Milligrams Glycyrrhizin per day
Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.6 - 15 Grams per day, dried root and stolon

  • Adolescents and adults include pregnant and breastfeeding women
  • Adult dose supported by the following references: Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003; Hoffmann 2003; Blumenthal et al. 2000; Bradley 1992.
  • Children and adolescent doses were calculated as a proportion of the adult dose (JC 2012).
  • See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.
  • The use of licorice in children and adolescents is supported by the following references: McIntyre 2005; Schilcher 1997; Bove 1996.

Duration of use

Consult a health care practitioner for use beyond 4-6 weeks  (ESCOP 2003, Hoffmann 2003, Blumenthal et al. 2000, Bradley 1992)

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):

Contraindication(s):

Known Adverse Reaction(s):
No statement is required

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
  • The medicinal ingredient may comply with the specifications outlined in the following pharmacopoeial monographs : (i) Liquorice, Liquorice Root for use in THM, Liquorice Root for use in THMP monographs from British Pharmacopoeia, (ii) Liquorice Root, Liquorice Ethanolic Liquid Extract monographs from European Pharmacopoeia, (iii) Licorice, Powdered Licorice, Powdered Licorice Extract monographs from US Pharmacopoeia

References cited

  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, editors. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.
  • Bove M. An Encyclopedia of Natural Healing for Children and Infants. New Canaan (CT): Keats Publishing, Incorporated; 1996
  • Bradley PR, editor. 1992. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 1. Bournemouth (GB): British Herbal Medicine Association.
  • Brinker F. 2010. Online Updates and Additions to Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications. [Updated 2010 July 13; Accessed 2013 January 30]. Available from: http://www.eclecticherb.com/emp/updatesHCDI.html
  • ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme; 2003.
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 1, 18th edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 1983 [Reprint of 1898 original].
  • Grieve M. 1971. A Modern Herbal, Volume 1. New York (NY): Dover Publications [Reprint of 1931 Harcourt, Brace & Company publication].
  • Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
  • JC 2008: Justice Canada. Food and Drug Regulations. (C.01.021). Ottawa (ON): Health Canada; 2008. [Accessed 2008-01-31] Available from: http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/F-27/C.R.C.-c.870/text.html
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. 1997. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
  • McIntyre A. Herbal Treatment of Children - Western and Ayurvedic Perspectives. Toronto (ON): Elsevier Limited; 2005.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
  • Schilcher H. Phytotherapy in Paediatrics: Handbook for Physicians and Pharmacists. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm Scientific Publishers; 1997.
  • USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

References reviewed

Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.

Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use

Dried root and stolon:

  • 3-12 g, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 1.5-15 g, per day (ESCOP 2003)
  • 5-15 g, per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 1-5 g, 3 times per day (Bradley 1992)

Decoction:

  • 3-12 g dried root and stolon, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 1.5-15 g dried root and stolon, per day (ESCOP 2003)
  • 2-4 g dried root and stolon, 3 times per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 1-5 g dried root and stolon, 3 times per day (Bradley 1992)

Directions for use:

  • Place ½ - 1 tsp of dried root and stolon in 250 ml (1 cup) of cold water, bring to a boil and simmer for 10-15 minutes (Hoffmann 2003).
  • Take after meals (Blumenthal et al. 2000).
    3 g = 1 tsp. (Hoffmann 2003)

Fluidextract:

  • 2-6 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:1, 2-6 ml) (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 2-4 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day
    (1:1, 2-4 ml) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)

Directions for use:

Take after meals (Blumenthal et al. 2000).

Tincture: 0.2-0.6 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day
(1:5, 40% alcohol, 1-3 ml) (Hoffmann 2003)

Preparations providing the following quantity of glycyrrhizic acid:

60-600 mg, per day (ESCOP 2003)