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Drugs and Health Products

Monograph: Hops

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Date: 2008-02-12

NHPID Name

Humulus lupulus (USDA 2008)

Proper Name(s)

Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae) ( USDA 2008 )

Common Name(s)

Hops ( McGuffin et al. 2000 , Bradley 1992 )

Source Material

Strobile ( Mills and Bone 2005 , Blumenthal et al. 2000 , Bradley 1992 )

Route Of Administration

Oral

Dosage Form(s)

Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Dose(s)

Adults and adolescents 12 and over:

Preparation: Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts

Dose(s): 0.5 - 6 Grams per day, dried strobile
Directions For Use: Sleep aid:
For sleep aid, take one dose before bed time (EMEA 2007, Hoffmann 2003, Bradley 1992)


See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.

Duration of use

No statement is required

Risk Information

Statement(s) to the effect of:

Caution(s) and Warning(s):
  • Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist.
  • Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms worsen.
  • Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding  (Barnes et al. 2007, Brinker 2007, Mills and Bone 2005)
  • Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you have depression and/or related diseases  (Brinker 2001, McGuffin et al. 1997)
  • Consumption of Hops with alcohol, other medications and/or natural health products with sedative properties is not recommended  (Brinker 2007)
  • Sleep aid:
    Consult a health care practitioner if sleeplessness persists continuously for more than 3 weeks (chronic insomnia)  (Berardi et al. 2002, DiPiro et al. 2002)

Contraindication(s):
No statement is required

Known Adverse Reaction(s):
Some people may experience drowsiness. Exercise caution if operating heavy machinery, driving a motor vehicle or involved in activities requiring mental alertness  (EMEA 2007)

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
  • The medicinal ingredient may comply with the specifications outlined in the Hop Strobile Monographs published in the European or British Pharmacopoeias.

References cited

  • Barnes J, Anderson LA, Philipson JD. 2007. Herbal Medicines, 3rd edition. London (GB): Pharmaceutical Press.
  • Berardi RR, DeSimone EM, Newton GD, Oszko MA, Popovich NG, Rollins CJ, Shimp LA, Tietze KJ, editors. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An Interactive Approach to Self-Care, 13th edition. Washington (DC): American Pharmaceutical Association; 2002.
  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, editors. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.
  • Bradley PR, editor. 1992. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 1. Bournemouth (GB): British Herbal Medicine Association.
  • Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.
  • Brinker F. Online Updates and Additions to Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 2007. [Accessed 2007-11-21]. Available from: http://www.eclecticherb.com/emp/updatesHCDI.html
  • Dipiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM. Pharmacotherapy: a pathophysiologic approach, 5th edition. New York (NY): The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.; 2002.
  • EMEA 2007: European Medicines Agency. London (UK): European Medicines Agency; 2007. [Accessed 2007-07-31]. Available from: http://www.emea.europa.eu.
  • ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme; 2003.
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 1, 18th edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 1983 [Reprint of 1898 original].
  • Grieve M. 1971. A Modern Herbal, Volume 1. New York (NY): Dover Publications [Reprint of 1931 Harcourt, Brace & Company publication].
  • Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. 1997. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
  • USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

References reviewed

  • Barnes J, Anderson LA, Philipson JD. 2002. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals, 2nd edition. London (GB): The Pharmaceutical Press.
  • BHP 1983: British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Cowling (GB): British Herbal Medical Association; 1983.
  • Boon H, Smith M. The Botanical Pharmacy: The pharmacology of 47 Common Herbs. Kingston (Ontario): Quarry Press Inc.; 1999.
  • Chevallier A. 1996. The Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. New York (NY): Dorling Kindersley.
  • Huang KC. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL) CRC Press; 1999.
  • Small E, Catling PM. 1999. Canadian Medicinal Crops. Ottawa (ON): National Research Council of Canada Monograph Publishing Program, NRC Research Press.
  • Wichtl M, editor. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 3rd edition. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2004.
  • Wiersema J, León B. 1999. World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press LLC.

Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations, frequencies of use and directions for use

Dried strobile:

  • 1.5-3 g, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 0.5 g, per day (EMEA 2007; Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 0.5-1 g, 1 to 4 times per day (Bradley 1992)

Directions for use:

Take one dose before bedtime (Bradley 1992)

Infusion:

  • 0.5-2 g dried strobile, per day (EMEA 2007)
  • 1.5-3 g dried strobile, per day (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 0.5 g dried strobile, 2 to 4 times per day (ESCOP 2003)
  • 0.5 g dried strobile, per day (Hoffmann 2003)
  • 0.5 g cut or powdered strobile, per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 0.5-1 g dried strobile, 1 to 4 times per day (Bradley 1992)

Directions for use:

Pour 250 ml (1 cup) of boiling water over dried strobile and infuse in a covered container for 10 to 15 minutes (Hoffmann 2003). A cup should be drunk before bedtime to induce sleep (EMEA 2007; Hoffmann 2003; Bradley 1992).
0.5 g = 1 tsp (Hoffman 2003)

Fluidextract:

  • 0.5-2 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:1, 45% ethanol, 0.5-2 ml) (EMEA 2007)
  • 1.5-3 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:1, 1.5-3 ml per day) (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 0.5-2 g dried equivalent, 1-3 times per day
    (1:1, 45% ethanol, 0.5-2 ml) (ESCOP 2003)
  • 0.5 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:1, 0.5 ml per day) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 0.5-1 g dried equivalent, 1-4 times, per day
    (1:1, 45% ethanol, 0.5-1 ml) (Bradley 1992)

Directions for use:

Take one dose before bedtime (Bradley 1992)

Tincture:

  • 0.2-0.4 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:5, 60% ethanol, 1-2 ml) (EMEA 2007)
  • 0.75-1.5 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:2, 1.5-3 ml) (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 0.6-1.2 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:5, 3-6 ml per day) (Mills and Bone 2005)
  • 0.2-0.4 g dried equivalent, 1-3 times per day
    (1:5, 60% ethanol, 1-2 ml) (ESCOP 2003)
  • 0.2-0.8 g dried equivalent, 3 times per day
    (1:5, 40% alcohol, 1-4 ml) (Hoffmann 2003)
  • 0.5 g dried equivalent, per day
    (1:5, 2.5 ml per day) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
  • 0.2-0.4 g dried equivalent, 1-4 times per day
    (1:5, 60% ethanol, 1-2 ml) (Bradley 1992)

Directions for use:

Take one dose before bed time (Bradley 1992)

Solid extract: 0.36-0.64 g dried equivalent, per day (6-8:1, 60-80 mg) (Blumenthal et al. 2000)