Help on accessing alternative formats, such as Portable Document Format (PDF), Microsoft Word and PowerPoint (PPT) files, can be obtained in the alternate format help section.
Cynara cardunculus L. (Asteraceae)
Cynara scolymus L. (Asteraceae)
Blumenthal et al. 2000
Route Of Administration
Those suited to the allowable route(s) of administration. This monograph is not intended to include food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.
Use(s) or Purpose(s)
Statement(s) to the effect of:
Dry, Powder, Decoction & Infusion + All Non-Standardised Extracts
1.5 - 10 Grams
See Appendix 1 for examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1 is to provide guidance to industry.
Duration of use
No statement is required
Statement(s) to the effect of:
Caution(s) and Warning(s)
Known Adverse Reaction(s)
Hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy) has been known to occur; in which case, discontinue use
, Bradley 2006
, ESCOP 2003
, Blumenthal et al. 2000
Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.
- The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the NHPD Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
- The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the Natural Health Products Ingredient Database (NHPID).
- The medicinal ingredient may comply with the specifications outlined in the Artichoke Leaf Monograph published in the British Pharmacopoeia.
Barnes J, Anderson LA, Philipson JD. 2007. Herbal Medicines, 3rd edition. London (GB): Pharmaceutical Press.
Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, editors. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.
Bradley PR, editor. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 2. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medicine Association; 2006.
Brinker F. 2001. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications.
Brinker F. 2010. Online Updates and Additions to Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications. [Updated 2010 July 13; Accessed 2013 January 30]. Available from: http://www.eclecticherb.com/emp/updatesHCDI.html
ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme; 2003.
Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Austin(TX): American Herbal Products Association.
Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
USDA 2008: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2008-01-21]. Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
Sinayoko L, Mennecier D, El Jahir Y, Corberand D, Harnois F, Thiolet C, Farret O. [Acute hepatic injury secondary to ingestion of artichoke extracts (Hepanephrol).] Atteinte hépatique aiguë secondaire à la prise d'extraits d'artichaut (Hépanéphrol®). Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique 2007; 31(11):1039-1040 (in French).
Appendix 1: Examples of appropriate dosage preparations and frequencies of use
6 g, per day (Blumenthal et al. 2000)
5-10 g dried leaf, per day (ESCOP 2003)
1.5-4 g dried equivalent, per day
(1:2, 3-8 ml) (Mills and Bone 2005)
Dry aqueous extract:
- 4.5-9 g dried equivalent, per day (Bradley 2006)
- 5-10 g dried equivalent, per day (ESCOP 2003)