Sage - Salvia Officinalis - Oral
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This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLAs) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient.
- Text in parentheses is additional optional information which can be included on the PLA and product label at the applicant's discretion.
- The solidus (/) indicates that the terms and/or the statements are synonymous. Either term or statement may be selected by the applicant.
February 28, 2013
L. (Lamiaceae) (USDA 2001; McGuffin et al. 2000)
- Sage (USDA 2001; McGuffin et al. 2000)
- Common sage (McGuffin et al. 2000)
- Dalmation sage (McGuffin et al. 2000)
- Garden sage (McGuffin et al. 2000)
Leaf (Blumenthal et al. 2000; BHP 1983; Cook 1869)
Route(s) of administration
- The acceptable pharmaceutical dosage forms include, but are not limited to capsules, chewables (e.g. gummies, tablets), liquids, powders, strips or tablets.
- This monograph is not intended to include foods or food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.
Use(s) or Purpose(s)
Statement(s) to the effect of
- Provides antioxidants (BHC 2006; Lima et al. 2005)
- (Traditionally) used in Herbal Medicine as a carminative/ to help provide relief of upset stomach and flatulence (flatulent dyspepsia) (Godfrey et al. 2010; EMEA 2009; BHC 2006; Mills and Bone 2005; BHP 1983; Culbreth 1927; Felter 1922).
- Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine as a diaphoretic/ to increase perspiration/sweating (PDR 2007; Culbreth 1927; Felter 1922; Cook 1869).
- Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine to reduce hyperhidrosis/ excessive sweating or perspiration (antihidrotic) (EMEA 2009; BHC 2006; Mills and Bone 2005; BHP 1983; Culbreth 1927; Felter 1922).
- Used in Herbal Medicine to help reduce hot flushes/flashes and/or night sweat associated with menopause (Romm 2010; BHC 2006; Mills and Bone 2000).
- (Traditionally) used in Herbal Medicine to stop the production of breast milk (antigalactagogue) (Godfrey and Saunders 2010; Wichtl 2004; Yarnell et al. 2003; Felter and Lloyd 1983; Culbreth 1927; Cook 1869).
A claim for a traditional use must include either the term "Herbal Medicine".
Statement(s) to the effect of
Adults (≥ 19 years)
1-6 ml per day (1:1, 45% ethanol) (BHC 2006; BHP 1983)
0.3-1.5 g dried leaf, per day (1:4-10, 50-70% ethanol) (EMEA 2009; ESCOP 2003)
0.3-2.25 g dried leaf, per day (1:2-5, 31.5% ethanol) (EMEA 2009; Mills and Bone 2005)
up to 6 g dried leaf, per day (BHC 2006).
Carminatives, Diaphoretics, Antihidrotics, and Antigalactagogues
1-12 g dried leaf, per day (Mills and Bone 2005; Blumenthal 2000; BHP 1983; Culbreth 1927)
Directions for use
Pour hot boiled water on dried herb and steep. Let infusion cool before drinking (BHC 2006; Mills and Bone 2005; BHP 1983; Culbreth 1927; Felter 1922).
Pour hot boiled water on dried herb and steep. Drink infusion while still warm (PDR 2007; Culbreth 1927; Felter 1922; Cook 1869).
Take one hour before bedtime (EMEA 2009).
Refer to Appendix 1
for examples of dosage preparations and directions for use, according to cited references. The purpose of Appendix 1
is to provide guidance to industry.
Duration of use
Statement(s) to the effect of
For use beyond 4 weeks, consult a health care practitioner (Wichtl 2004; McGuffin et al. 1997: ESCOP 2003).
For use beyond 2 weeks, consult a health care practitioner (EMEA 2009; Wichtl 2004; McGuffin et al. 1997).
Statement(s) to the effect of
Caution(s) and warning(s)
Carminatives, Diaporetics, Antihidrotics and Antigalactagogues:
If symptoms persist of worsen, consult a health care practitioner.
- If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, do not use this product (BHC 2006; Mills and Bone 2005; McGuffin et al. 1997).
- If you have a seizure disorder (e.g. epilepsy), do not use this product (BHC 2006; Mills and Bone 2005).
Known adverse reaction(s)
No statement required.
Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database
) and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.
Statement(s) to the effect of
All products, except those encapsulated:
Store protected from light and moisture (Martindale 2010; Wichtl 2004)
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- BHP 1983: British Herbal Medicine Association's Scientific Committee. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Bournemouth (GB): The British Herbal Medicine Association; 1983.
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The Physio-Medical Dispensatory: A Treatise on Therapeutics, Materia Medica, and Pharmacy, in Accordance with the Principles of Physiological Medication. [Internet] Cincinnati (OH): WM.H. Cook; 1869. Reprint version by Medical Herbalism and medherb.com, Boulder (CO). [Accessed 2012 April 27].
- Culbreth DMR.
A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology [Internet] 7th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Lea & Febiger; 1927. Abridged and alphabetized by Michael Moore, director. The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine, Bisbee (AZ). [Accessed 2012 April 27].
- EMEA 2009:
EMA/HMPC/331653/2008 Community herbal monograph on Salvia officinalis L., folium. Final. 12 November 2009. London (GB): European Medicines Agency: Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). [Accessed 2013 February 06].
- ESCOP 2003:E/S/C/O/P Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products. Second edition. Completely revised and Expanded. Exeter (GB): ESCOP, the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotheraphy in collaboration with Georg ThiemeVerlag and Thieme; 2003.
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- Martindale 2010: Sweetman SC, editor.
Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference 37th edition [Internet]. London (GB): Pharmaceutical Press; 2012. [Sage: Salvia officinalis, Date of monograph revision 20101127; Accessed 2012 August 1].
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- Ph.Eur. 2013: European Pharmacopoeia. 7th edition. Strasbourg (FR): Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare of the Council of Europe (EDQM); 2012.
- Romm A. Botanical Medicine for Women’s Health. St. Louis (MO): Churchill Livingstone; 2010.
- USDA 2001:
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). [Internet]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Salvia officinalis L. Last updated: 31-Dec-2001; Accessed 2012 August 1].
- Wichtl M, editor. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. 3rd edition. Stuttgart (DE): Medpharm Scientific Publishers; 2004.
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- AU TGA 1999: Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration
TGA Approved Terminology for Medicines, Section 3 - Herbal Substances. July 1999. [Internet]. Symonston (AU): Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, Therapeutic Goods Administration. [Accessed 2012 Apr 27].
- Azevedo MF, Lima CF, Fernandes-Ferreira M, Almeida MJ, Wilson JM, Pereira-Wilson C. Rosmarinic acid, major phenolic constituent of Greek sage herbal tea, modulates rat intestinal SGLT1 levels with effects on blood glucose. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2011;55(S1): S15-S25.
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Final updates and Additions for Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd ed including extensive Appendices addressing common problematic conditions, medications and nutritional supplements, and influences on Phase I, II & III metabolism with new appendix on botanicals and complementary adjuncts with drugs. [Internet] Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications. [Updated July 13, 2010; Accessed 2012 April 27].
Canadian Nutrient File (CNF), 2012 [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Food and Nutrition, Health Canada. [Date Modified 2012-02-10; Accessed 2012 Apr 27].
Canada Vigilance Adverse Reaction Online Database. Ottawa (ON): Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada; 2011. [Accessed 2012 April 27].
- Christensen KB, Jorgensen M, Kotowska D, Petersen RK, Kristiansen K, Christensen LP. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR? by metabolities isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2010;132(1):127-133.
- derMarderosian A, Beutler JA, editors. The Review of Natural Products. "Sage: Date of Issue February 2010" St Louis (MO): Facts and Comparisons, Wolters Kluwer Health; Printed in 2008 and Updated to May 2012.
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- European Medicines Agency.
Community Herbal Monograph on Salvia officinalis L., Folium. London (GB): EMEA Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC); 03 February 2010. [Accessed 2012 April 27]
- European Medicines Agency.
Public statement on Salvia officinalis L., aetheroleum London (GB): EMEA Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC); 19 October 2010. [Accessed 2012 April 27]
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Examples of dosage preparations and directions for use
0.2-0.3 g dried leaf, three times per day (1:10, 70% ethanol, 2-3 ml)
0.4-0.5 g dried leaf, three times per day (1:4-5, 50% ethanol, 2 ml)
0.1-0.23 g dried leaf, three times per day (1:3.5-5, 31.5% ethanol, 0.4-0.8 ml)
0.24-0.34 g dried leaf, per day (1:3.5-5, 31.5% ethanol, 1.2 ml)
Mills and Bone 2005
Infusion: 3 to 12g/day of dried leaf
Tincture: 2 to 4.5 ml/day or a 1:2 liquid extract or equivalent in tablet or capsule form.
Blumenthal et al. 2000
Unless otherwise prescribed: 4-6 g per day of cut leaf for infusions.
Internal: Infusion: 1-3 g in 150 ml water, three times daily.
Internal daily dose:
3-6g of dried leaf, usually as an infusion;
liquid extract 1:1 in 45% ethanol, 2-6 ml
Dried herb. Dose 1-4g or by infusion.
1-4 g per day as an infusion