Health Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada
Drugs and Health Products

QUERCETIN

Help on accessing alternative formats, such as Portable Document Format (PDF), Microsoft Word and PowerPoint (PPT) files, can be obtained in the alternate format help section.

This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLAs) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient.

Notes

  • Text in parentheses is additional optional information which can be included on the PLA and product label at the applicant's discretion.
  • The solidus (/) indicates that the terms and/or statements are synonymous. Either term or statement may be selected by the applicant.

Date

June 3, 2019

Proper name(s), Common name(s), Source material(s)

Table 1. Proper name(s), Common name(s), Source material(s)
Proper name(s) Common name(s) Source ingredient(s)
Common name(s)
  • 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one
  • 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromen-4-one
  • 3,3´,4´,5,7-Pentahydroxyflavone
  • Quercetin
  • Quercetin anhydrous
  • Citrus bioflavonoids
  • Quercetin
  • Quercetin dihydrate

References: Proper names: Ph.Eur. 2013, ChemID 2012, Merck 2012, PubChem 2012, Martindale 2011; Common names: ChemID 2012; Merck 2012; Source ingredients: NHPID 2019.

Route of Administration

Oral

Dosage Form(s)

This monograph excludes foods or food-like dosage forms as indicated in the Compendium of Monographs Guidance Document.

Acceptable dosage forms for any age category listed in this monograph for the specified route of administration are listed in the Compendium of Monographs Guidance Document.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

  • Source of/Provides antioxidants (Merck 2012; Martindale 2011; Murray and Bongiorno 2006; Harborne et al. 1999).
  • Used in Herbal Medicine as a capillary/blood vessel protectant (Merck 2012; Martindale 2011; PDR 2008; Murray and Bongiorno 2006; Harborne et al. 1999).

Dose(s)

Subpopulation(s)

Adults 18 years and older

Quantity(ies)

Antioxidant

Not to exceed 1,200 milligrams of Quercetin, per day and 600 milligrams per single dose (NS 2012; Wang et al. 2009; Boots et al. 2008; PDR 2008; Erlund et al. 2003; Lamson and Brignall 2000; Hakkinen et al. 1999).

Capillary/ blood vessel protectant

600 - 1,200 milligrams of Quercetin, per day. Not to exceed 600 milligrams per single dose (PDR 2008; Murray and Bongiorno 2006).

Direction(s) for use

Products providing 40-1,200 milligrams of Quercetin, per day

Take with food/meal (Harwood et al. 2007).

Duration(s) of Use

Products providing 40-1,200 milligrams of Quercetin, per day

Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/physician for use beyond 12 weeks (NS 2012; Harwood et al. 2007; Boyle et al. 2000).

Risk Information

Caution(s) and warning(s)

Products providing 40-1,200 milligrams of Quercetin, per day

Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/physician prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Contraindication(s)

No statement required.

Known adverse reaction(s)

No statement required.

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database (NHPID) and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Storage conditions

Store in a light-resistant container (Ph.Eur. 2013).

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate (NNHPD) Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the NHPID.

References Cited

  • Boots AW, Haenen GR, Bast A. Health effects of quercetin: from antioxidant to nutraceutical. European Journal of Pharmacology 2008;582(2-3):325-37.
  • Boyle SP, Dobson VL, Duthie SJ, Hinselwood DC, Kyle JAM, Collins AR. Bioavailability and efficiency of rutin as an antioxidant: a human supplementation study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;54(10):774-784.
  • BP 2012: British Pharmacopoeia 2012. Volume I. London (GB): The Stationary Office on behalf of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA); 2012.
  • ChemID 2012: ChemIDplus advanced [Internet]. Quercetin: CAS # 117-39-5. Bethesda (MD): United States National Library of Medicine; 2011. [Accessed 2019 May 16]. Available from: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus
  • Duke 1992: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Plants containing quercetin, 1992 [Internet]. [Accessed 2019 May 16]. Available from: https://phytochem.nal.usda.gov/phytochem/search/list
  • Duke JA. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2001.
  • Egert S, Wolffram S, Schulze B, Langguth P, Hubbermann EM, Schwarz K, Adolphi B, Bosy- Westphal A, Rimbach G, Müller MJ. Enriched cereal bars are more effective in increasing plasma quercetin compared with quercetin from powder-filled hard capsules. The British Journal of Nutrition 2012;107(4):539-546.
  • Egert S, Wolffram S, Bosy-Westphal A, Boesch-Saadatmandi C, Wagner AE, Frank J, Rimbach G, Mueller MJ. Daily quercetin supplementation dose-dependently increases plasma quercetin concentrations in healthy humans. The Journal of Nutrition 2008;138,1615-1621.
  • Erlund I, Marniemi J, Hakala P, Alfthan G, Meririnne E, Aro A. Consumption of black currants, lingonberries and bilberries increases serum quercetin concentrations. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;57(1):37-42.
  • Häkkinen SH, Kärenlampi SO, Heinonen IM, Mykkänen HM, Törrönen AR. Content of the flavonols quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol in 25 edible berries. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1999;47(6):2274-2279.
  • Harborne JB, Baxter H, Moss GP, editors. Phytochemical Dictionary: A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. 2nd edition. Philadelphia (PA): Taylor & Francis Ltd; 1999.
  • Harwood M, Danielewska-Nikiel B, Borzelleca JF, Flamm GW, Williams GM, Lines TC. A critical review of the data related to the safety of quercetin and lack of evidence of in vivo toxicity, including lack of genotoxic/carcinogenic properties. Food and chemical toxicology 2007;45(11):2179-2205.
  • Kite GC, Stoneham CA, Veitch NC. Flavonol tetraglycosides and other constituents from leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum (Leguminosae) and related taxa. Phytochemistry 2007;68(10):1407-1416.
  • Lamson DW, Brignall MS. Antioxidants and cancer, part 3: quercetin. Alternative Medicine Review 2000;5(3):196-208.
  • Martindale 2011: Sweetman SC, editor. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference [Internet]. Quercetin: CAS: 117-39-5. London (GB): Pharmaceutical Press; 2012. [Accessed 2019 May 16]. Available from: http://www.medicinescomplete.com
  • Merck 2012: The Merck Index Version 14.1. [Internet]. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck & Co., Inc. Copyright © 2006, 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. [Accessed 2019 May 16]. Available from: http://www.knovel.com
  • Murray MT, Bongiorno PB. Flavonoids-Quercetin, Citrus Flavonoids, and Hydroxyethylrutosides. In: Pizzorno JE, Murray MT, editors. Textbook of Natural Medicine, Third edition, volume 1. St. Louis (MI): Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2006. p. 967-973.
  • NS 2012: Natural Standard. Quercetin. Copyright 2012 [Internet]. [Accessed 2019 May 16]. Available from: http://www.naturalstandard.com
  • PDR 2008: Hendler SS, Rorvik D. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Second edition. Montvale (NJ): Thomson Healthcare; 2008.
  • Ph.Eur. 2013: European Pharmacopoeia. 7th edition. Strasbourg (FR): Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare of the Council of Europe (EDQM); 2012.
  • PubChem 2004: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID 5280343 Create Date: 2004-09-16 [Internet]. [Accessed 2019 May 16]. Available from: http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
  • Utesch D, Feige K, Dasenbrock J, Broschard TH, Harwood M, Danielewska-Nikiel B, Lines TC. Evaluation of the potential in vivo genotoxicity of quercetin. Mutation Research 2008;654(1):38- 44.
  • Wang L, Lee IM, Zhang SM, Blumberg JB, Buring JE, Sesso HD. Dietary intake of selected flavonols, flavones, and flavonoid-rich foods and risk of cancer in middle-aged and older women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;89(3):905-912.

References Reviewed

  • Bae SC, Jung WJ, Lee EJ, Yu R, Sung MK. Effects of antioxidant supplements intervention on the level of plasma inflammatory molecules and disease severity of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2009;28(1):56-62.
  • Boots AW, Li H, Schins RP, Duffin R, Heemskerk JW, Bast A, Haenen GR. The quercetin paradox. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2007;222(1):89-96.
  • Cai J, Nelson KC, Wu M, Sternberg P Jr, Jones DP. Oxidative damage and protection of the RPE. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 2000;19(2):205-221.
  • Chan MM, Mattiacci JA, Hwang HS, Shah A, Fong D. Synergy between ethanol and grape polyphenols, quercetin, and resveratrol, in the inhibition of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway. Biochemical Pharmacology 2000;60(10):1539-1548.
  • Chuang CC, Martinez K, Xie G, et al. Quercetin is equally or more effective than resveratrol in attenuating tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;92(6):1511-1521.
  • Edwards RL, Lyon T, Litwin SE, Rabovsky A, Symons JD, Jalili T. Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. Journal of Nutrition 2007;137(11):2405-2411.
  • Egert S, Bosy-Westphal A, Seiberl J, Kürbitz C, Settler U, Plachta-Danielzik S, Wagner AE, Frank J, Schrezenmeir J, Rimbach G, Wolffram S, Müller MJ. Quercetin reduces systolic blood pressure and plasma oxidised low-density lipoprotein concentrations in overweight subjects with a high-cardiovascular disease risk phenotype: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. British Journal of Nutrition 2009;102(7):1065-1074.
  • Feres CA, Madalosso RC, Rocha OA, Leite JP, Guimaraes TM, Toledo VP, Tagliati CA. Acute and chronic toxicological studies of Dimorphandra mollis in experimental animals. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2006;108(3):450-456.
  • Gates MA, Tworoger SS, Hecht JL, De Vivo I, Rosner B, Hankinson SE. A prospective study of dietary flavonoid intake and incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer. International Journal of Cancer 2007;121(10):2225-2232.
  • Giuliani C, Noguchi Y, Harii N, Napolitano G, Tatone D, Bucci I, Piantelli M, Monaco F, Kohn LD. The flavonoid quercetin regulates growth and gene expression in rat FRTL-5 thyroid cells. Endocrinology 2008;149(1):84-92.
  • Guardia T, Rotelli AE, Juarez AO, Pelzer LE. Anti-inflammatory properties of plant flavonoids. Effects of rutin, quercetin, and hesperidin on adjuvant arthritis in rat. Farmaco Journal 2001;56(9):683-687.
  • Hanninen, Kaartinen K, Rauma AL, Nenonen M, Torronen R, Hakkinen AS, Adlercreutz H, Laakso J. Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders. Toxicology 2000;155(1-3):45-53.
  • Knekt P, Isotupa S, Rissanen H, Heliövaara M, Järvinen R, Häkkinen S, Aromaa A, Reunanen A. Quercetin intake and the incidence of cerebrovascular disease. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;54(5):415-417.
  • Kurowska EM, Spence JD, Jordan J, Wetmore S, Freeman DJ, Piche LA, Serratore P. HDL- cholesterol-raising effect of orange juice in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;72(5):1095-1100.
  • Lam TK, Rotunno M, Lubin JH, et al. Dietary quercetin, quercetin-gene interaction, metabolic gene expression in lung tissue and lung cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 2010;31(4):634-642.
  • Longanga OA, Vercruysse A, Foriers A. Contribution to the ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of traditionally used medicinal plants in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Lomela area, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2000;71(3):411-423.
  • Mackraj I, Govender T, Ramesar S. The antihypertensive effects of quercetin in a salt-sensitive model of hypertension. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 2008;51(3):239-245.
  • McAnulty SR, McAnulty LS, Nieman DC, Quindry JC, Hosick PA, Hudson MH, Still L, Henson DA, Milne GL, Morrow JD, Dumke CL, Utter AC, Triplett NT, Dibarnardi A. Chronic quercetin ingestion and exercise-induced oxidative damage and inflammation. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 2008;33(2):254-262.
  • Nieman DC, Henson DA, Gross SJ, Jenkins DP, Davis JM, Murphy EA, Carmichael MD, Dumke CL, Utter AC, McAnulty SR, McAnulty LS, Mayer EP. Quercetin reduces illness but not immune perturbations after intensive exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2007;39(9):1561-1569.
  • Otshudi AL, Foriers A, Vercruysse A, Van Zeebroeck A, Lauwers S. In vitro antimicorbial activity of six medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Phytomedicine 2000;7(2):167-172.
  • Owen RW, Giacosa A, Hull WE, Haubner R, Spiegelhalder B, Bartsch H. The antioxidant/anticancer potential of phenolic compounds isolated from olive oil. European Journal of Cancer 2000;36(10):1235-1247.
  • Owen RW, Mier W, Giacosa A, Hull WE, Spiegelhalder B, Bartsch H. Identification of lignans as major components in the phenolic fraction of olive oil. Clinical Chemistry 2000;46(7):976- 988.
  • Rakel D. Integrative Medicine. Second edition. Philadelphia (PA): Saunders Elsevier; 2007.
  • Ramos S. Effects of dietary flavonoids on apoptotic pathways related to cancer chemoprevention. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2007;18(7):427-442.
  • Ruiz PA, Braune A, Holzlwimmer G, Quintanilla-Fend L, Haller D. Quercetin inhibits TNF- induced NF-kappaB transcription factor recruitment to proinflammatory gene promoters in murine intestinal epithelial cells. Journal of Nutrition 2007;137(5):1208-1215.
  • Shoskes DA, Zeitlin SI, Shahed A, Rajfer J.. Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: a preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology 1999;54:960-963.
  • Taepongsorat L, Tangpraprutgul P, Kitana N, Malaivijitnond S. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats. Asian Journal of Andrology 2008;10(2):249-258.
  • Thornhill SM, Kelly AM. Natural treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. Asian Journal of Andrology 2000;5(5):448-454.
  • Xing N, Chen Y, Mitchell SH, Young CY. Quercetin inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 2001;22(3):409-414.