Pomegranate (Under Consultation)
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This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLAs) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient.
- By submitting a PLA referencing this monograph, the applicant is attesting that the product will comply fully with the recommended conditions of use outlined in this monograph. The conditions of use include methods of preparations, source materials, doses, durations of use, combinations of medicinal ingredients, and risk statements.
- Text in parentheses is additional optional information which can be included on the PLA and product label at the applicant's discretion.
- The solidus (/) indicates that the terms and/or the statements are synonymous. Either term or statement may be selected by the applicant.
February 7, 2014
Punica granatum L.
(Lythraceae) (USDA 1995)
Pomegranate (USDA 1995)
- Fruit (Duke 2001)
- Seed Aril (Duke 2001)
Route(s) of Administration
- The acceptable pharmaceutical dosage forms include, but are not limited to capsules, chewables (e.g. gummies, tablets), liquids, powders, strips or tablets.
- This monograph is not intended to include foods or food-like dosage forms such as bars, chewing gums or beverages.
Use or Purpose
Statement to the effect of:
Provides antioxidants (Herber et al. 2007; Rosenblat et al. 2006; Aviram et al. 2004; Aviram et al. 2000).
Adult (≥ 18 years)
Dry, Powdered, Non-standardized extracts & Standardized Extracts
- Up to 20 g of Quantity Crude Equivalent (QCE), per day (CNF 2012)
- Up to 100 g of fresh fruit per day (CNF 2012).
When submitting by ePLA, choose fresh for original material field and indicate approximate value of fresh:dry ratio (e.g. 5:1).
Statement(s) to the effect of:
No statement required.
No statement required.
Known adverse reaction(s)
No statement required.
Must be chosen from the current NNHPD Natural Health Products Ingredients Database
) and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.
No statement required.
- Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D, Nitecki S, Hoffman A, Dornfeld L, Volkova N, Presser D, Attias J, Liker H, Hayek T. Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation. Clinical Nutrition 2004;23(3):423-33.
- Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Rosenblat M, Volkova N, Kaplan M, Coleman R, Hayek T, Presser D, Fuhrman B. Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregations: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;71(5):1062-76.
- CNF 2012: Health Canada. Canadian Nutrient File. Pomegranate, raw (Food code 1667). Canadian Nutrient File. Food Directorate, Health Canada; 2012. [Accessed 2013 July 26].
- Duke JA. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2001
- Heber D, Seeram NP, Wyatt H, Henning SM, Zhang Y, Ogden LG, Dreher M, Hill JO. Safety and antioxidant activity of a pomegranate ellagitannin-enriched polyphenol dietary supplement in overweight individuals with increased waist size. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2007;55(24):10050-10054.
- Mena P, Garcia-Viguera C, Navarro-Rico J, Moreno DA, Bartual J, Saura D, Marti N. Phytochemical characterisation for industrial use of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Spain. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 2011;91:1893-1906.
- Rosenblat M, Hayek T, Aviram M. Anti-oxidative effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption by diabetic patients on serum and on macrophages. Atherosclerosis 2006;187(2): 363-71.
- Saruwatari A, Okamura S, Nakajima Y, Narukawa Y, Takeda T. Tamura H. Pomegranate juice inhibits sulfoconjugation in Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells. Journal of Medicinal Food 2008;11(4):623-8
- USDA1995: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network GRIN Taxonomy for Plants(GRIN). [Internet]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Punica granataum L. Last updated 1995 February 10; Accessed 2013 August 12].
- Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications;2001.
- Duke JA, Bogenschutz-Godwin M, duCellier J, Duke P-AK. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton (Fla): CRC Press;1985.
- Farkas D, Oleson LE, Zhao Y, Harmatz JS, Zinny MA, Court MH, Greenblatt DJ. Pomegranate juice does not impair clearance of oral or intravenous midazolam, a probe for cytochrome P450-3A activity: comparison with grapefruit juice. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2007;47:286-294.
- Faria A, Monteiro R, Azevedo I, Calhau C. Pomegranate juice effects on cytochrome P450S expression: in vivo studies. Journal of Medicinal Food 2007;10(4):643-649.
- Gil MI, Tomás-Barberán FA, Hess-Pierce B, Hlocroft Dm, Kader AA. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2000;48(10):4581-4589.
- Gonzalez-Sarrias A, Azorin-Ortuno M, Yanez-Gascon MJ, Thomás-Barberán FA, Garcia-Conesa MT, Espin JC. Dissimilar in vitro and in vivo effects of ellagic acid and its microbiota-derived metabolites, urolithins, on the cytopcrhome P450 1A1. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2009;57(12);5623-5632
- Hidaka M, Okumura M, Fujita K, Ogikubo T, Yamasaki K, Iwakiri T, Setoguchi N, Arimori K. Effects of pomegranate juice on human cytochrome p450 3A (CYP3A) and carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in rats. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 2005;33:644-648.
- Hidaka M, Fujita K, Ogikubo T, Yamasaki K, Iwakiri T, Okumura M, Kodama H, Arimori K: Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 2004;32:581-583.
- Jarvis S, Li C, Bogle RG. Possible interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin. Emergency Medicine Journal 2010;27(1):74-75.
- Kasimsetty SG, Bialonska D, Reddy MK, Thornton C, Willett KL, Ferreira D. Effects of pomegranate chemical constituents/intestinal microbial metabolites on CYP1B1 in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2009;57(22):10636-10644.
- Kim H, Yoon YJ, Shon JH, Cha IJ, Shin JG, Liu KH. Inhibitory effects of fruit juices on CYP3A activity. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 2006;34:521-523.
- Komperda KE. Potential Interactions Between Pomegranate Juice and Warfarin. Pharmacotherapy 2009;29(8):1002-1006.
- Misaka S, Nakamura R, Uchida S, Takeuchi K, Takahashi N, Inui N, KIosuge K, Yamada S, Watanabe H. Effect of 2 weeks' consumption of pomegranate juice on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of midazolam: an open-label, randomized, single-centre, 2-period crossover study in health Japanese volunteers. Clinical Therapeutics 2011;33(2):245-252.
- Nagata M, Hidaka M, Sekiya H, Kawano Y, Yamasaki K, Okumura M, Arimori K. Effects of pomegranate juice on human cytochrome P450 2C9 and tolbutamide pharmacokinetics in rats. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 2007;35:302-305.
- Pantuck AJ, Leppert Jt, Zomorodian N, Aronson W, Hong J, Barnard RJ, Seeram N, Liker H, Wang H, Elashoff R, Heber D, Aviram M, Ignarro L, Belldegrun A. Phase II study of pomegranate juice for men with rising prostate-specific antigen following surgery or radiation for prostate cancer. Clinical Cancer Research 2006;12(13):4018-4026.
- Seeram NP, Lee R, Heber D. Bioavailablitiy of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice. Clinica Chimica Acta 2004;348(1-2):63-68.
- Sorokin AV, Duncan B, Panetta R, Thompson PD. Rhabomyolysis associated with pomegranate juice consumption. American Journal of Cardiology 2006;98(5):705-706.
- Yeo C, Shon J, Liu K, Lee D, Yoon Y, Shin J. The effects of pomegranate juice on pharmacokinetics of simvastatin in healthy Korean subjects [abstract]. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2006;79:23.
- van Wyk B-E, Wink M. Medicinal Plants of the World: An illustrated scientific guide to important medicinal plants and their uses. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press;2004.