Santé Canada
Symbole du Gouvernement du Canada
Médicaments et produits de santé

EXTRAIT DE THÉ VERT

Si vous avez besoin d'aide pour accéder aux formats de rechange, tels que Portable Document Format (PDF), Microsoft Word et PowerPoint (PPT), visitez la section d'aide sur les formats de rechange.

La présente monographie vise à servir de guide à l'industrie pour la préparation de demandes de licence de mise en marché (DLMM) et d'étiquettes dans le but d'obtenir une autorisation de mise en marché d'un produit de santé naturel. Elle ne vise pas à être une étude approfondie de l'ingrédient médicinal.

Nota

  • Les parenthèses contiennent des éléments d'information additionnels (facultatifs) qui peuvent être inclus dans la DLMM ou sur l'étiquette du produit à la discrétion du demandeur.
  • La barre oblique (/) indique que les termes ou les énoncés sont synonymes. Le demandeur peut utiliser n'importe lequel des termes ou énoncés indiqués.

Date

28 août 2018

Nom(s) propre(s), Nom(s) commun(s), Matière(s) d'origine

Tableau 1. Nom(s) propre(s), Nom(s) commun(s), Matière(s) d'origine
Nom(s) propre(s) Nom(s) commun(s) Matière(s) d'origine
Nom(s) propre(s) Partie(s)

Camellia sinensis

  • Extrait de Camellia sinensis
  • Extrait de feuilles de Camellia Sinensis
  • Extrait de feuilles de thé
  • Extrait de thé
  • Extrait de Thea sinensis
  • Extrait de thé blanc
  • Extrait de thé de Chine
  • Extrait de thé vert

Camellia sinensis

Feuille

Références : Nom propre: USDA 2018; Noms communs: Westerterp-Plantenga et al. 2005, Henning et al. 2004, Bruneton 1999; Matière d'origine: Nagao et al. 2005, Chantre et Lairon 2002.

Voie d'administration

Orale

Forme(s) posologique(s)

Cette monographie exclut les aliments et les formes posologiques semblables aux aliments tel qu'indiqué dans le document de référence Compendium des monographies.

Les formes posologiques acceptables pour les catégories d'âge listées dans cette monographie et pour la voie d'administration spécifiée sont indiquées dans le document de référence Compendium des monographies.

Usage(s) ou fin(s)

  • Source d'antioxydants/Fournit des antioxydants (Camargo et al. 2006; Coimbra et al. 2006; Henning et al. 2004; Nakagawa et al. 1999; Van het Hof et al. 1997).
  • À utiliser dans le cadre d'un programme qui recommande une réduction de l'apport calorique et une augmentation de l'activité physique (dans la mesure du possible) pour aider à la gestion du poids (Nagao et al. 2005; Westerterp-Plantenga et al. 2005; Chantre and Lairon 2002; Dulloo et al. 1999).

Dose(s)

Sous-population(s)

Adultes 18 ans et plus

Quantité(s)

Antioxydant

Méthodes de préparation : Extraits normalisés (extrait sec, teinture, extrait fluide, décoction, infusion)

Ne pas dépasser 690 milligrammes de catéchines totales, et 150 milligrammes de caféine, par jour (Nagao et al. 2005; Henning et al. 2004; Nakagawa et al. 1999).

Gestion du poids

Méthodes de préparation : Extraits normalisés (extrait sec, teinture, extrait fluide, décoction, infusion)

136 à 300 milligrammes de (-)-épigallocatéchine-3-gallate (EGCG) et 75 à 150 milligrammes de caféine, avec un taux EGCG:caféine de 1,8:1 à 4:1, par jour (Nagao et al. 2005; Westerterp-Plantenga et al. 2005; Chantre et Lairon 2002).

Mode(s) d'emploi

Tous les produits

Prendre avec de la nourriture (SC 2017).

Durée(s) d'utilisation

Tous les produits

Consulter un praticien de soins de la santé/fournisseur de soins de santé/professionnel de la santé/docteur/médecin si l'utilisation se prolonge au-delà de 12 semaines (Nagao et al. 2005; Westerterp-Plantenga et al. 2005; Chantre et Lairon 2002).

Mention(s) de risque

Précaution(s) et mise(s) en garde

Tous les produits

  • Cesser l'utilisation si vous développez des symptômes de troubles du foie tels que le jaunissement de la peau/des yeux (jaunisse), des douleurs d'estomac, de l'urine foncée, de la transpiration, de la nausée, une fatigue inhabituelle et/ou une perte d'appétit et consulter un praticien de soins de la santé/fournisseur de soins de santé/professionnel de la santé/docteur/médecin (SC 2017; Molinari et al. 2006; Gloro et al. 2005).
  • Consulter un praticien de soins de la santé/fournisseur de soins de santé/professionnel de la santé/docteur/médecin avant d'en faire l'usage si vous êtes enceinte ou si vous allaitez, si vous souffrez de troubles du foie ou avez une carence en fer (SC 2017; SC 2007; Cooper et al. 2006; Nelson et Poulter 2004; Zijp et al. 2000).

Contre-indications(s)

Énoncé non requis.

Réaction(s) indésirable(s) connue(s)

Tous les produits

Des cas rares et non prévisibles de lésions du foie associées avec des produits contenant de l'extrait de thé vert ont été rapportés (au Canada et internationalement) (SC 2017).

Ingrédients non médicinaux

Doivent être choisis parmi ceux de la version actuelle de la Base de données des ingrédients des produits de santé naturels (BDIPSN) et respecter les restrictions mentionnées dans cette base de données.

Conditions d'entreposage

Énoncé non requis.

Spécifications

  • Les spécifications du produit fini doivent être établies conformément aux exigences décrites dans le Guide de référence sur la qualité des produits de santé naturels de la Direction des produits de santé naturels et sans ordonnance (DPSNSO).
  • L'ingrédient médicinal doit être conforme aux exigences mentionnées dans la BDIPSN.

Références citées

  • Bruneton J. Pharmacognosie, Phytochimie, Plantes Médicinales, 3e édition. Paris (F) : Technique & Documentation. 1999.
  • Camargo AE, Daguer DA, Barbosa DS. Green tea exerts antioxidant action in vitro an dits consumption increases total serum antioxidant potential in normal and dyslipidemic subjects. Nutrition Research 2006;26:626-631.
  • Chantre P, Lairon D. Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity. Phytomedicine 2002;9(1):3-8.
  • Coimbra S, Castro E, Rocha-Pereira P, Rebelo I, Rocha S, Santos-Silva A. The effect of green tea in oxidative stress. Clinical Nutrition 2006;25(5):790-796.
  • Cooper MJ, Cockell KA, L'Abbe MR. The iron status of Canadian adolescents and adults: current knowledge and practical implications. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research 2006;67(3):130-138.
  • Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, Girardier L, Mensi N, Fathi M, Chantre P, Vandermander J. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;70(6):1040-1045.
  • Gloro R, Hourmand-Ollivier I, Mosquet B, Mosquet L, Rousselot P, Salame E, Piquet MA, Dao T. Fulminant hepatitis during self-medication with hydroalcoholic extract of green tea. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2005;17(10):1135-1137.
  • Henning SM, Niu Y, Lee NH, Thames GD, Minutti RR, Wang H, Go VL, Heber D. Bioavailability and antioxidant activity of tea flavanols after consumption of green tea, black tea, or a green tea extract supplement. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;80(6):1558-1564.
  • Molinari M, Watt KD, Kruszyna T, Nelson R, Walsh M, Huang WY, Nashan B, Peltekian K. Acute liver failure induced by green tea extracts: case report and review of the literature. Liver Transplantation 2006;12(12):1892-1895.
  • Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S, Meguro S, Hase T, Tanaka Y, Tokimitsu I. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;81(1):122-129.
  • Nakagawa K, Ninomiya M, Okubo T, Aoi N, Juneja LR, Kim M, Yamanaka K, Miyazawa T. Tea catechin supplementation increases antioxidant capacity and prevents phospholipid hydroperoxidation in plasma of humans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1999;47(10):3967-3973.
  • Nelson M, Poulter J. Impact of tea drinking on iron status in the UK: a review. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 2004;17(1):43-54.
  • SC 2017: Santé Canada. Résumé de l'examen de l'innocuité sur les produits de santé naturels contenant de l'extrait de thé vert - Évaluation du risque potentiel de lésions du foie (hépatotoxicité). Ottawa (ON): Santé Canada; Novembre 2017. Mise à jour décembre 2017. [Consulté le 3 juillet 2018]. Disponible à : https://www.canada.ca/fr/sante-canada/services/medicaments-produits-sante/medeffet-canada/examens-innocuite/produits-sante-naturels-contenant-extrait-the-vert-evaluation-risque-potentiel-lesion-hepatique.html
  • SC 2007. Santé Canada. Votre santé et vous. Caféine. Ottawa (ON). [Consulté le 3 juillet 2018]. Disponible à : https://www.hsnsudbury.ca/PortalFr/Portals/7/la%20caffeine.pdf
  • USDA 2018: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Le lien suivant vous amène à un autre site Web Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Consulté le 29 Juin 2018]. Disponible à http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl.
  • Van het Hof KH, de Boer HS, Wiseman SA, Lien N, Weststrate JA, Tijburg LB. Consumption of green or black tea does not increase resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;66(5):1125-1132.
  • Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM. Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation. Obesity Research 2005;13(7):1195-1204.
  • Zijp IM, Korver O, Tijburg LB. Effect of tea and other dietary factors on iron absorption. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2000;40(5):371-398.

Références consultées

  • Arts IC, Hollman PC, Feskens EJ, Bueno de Mesquita HB, Kromhaut D. Catechin intake might explain the inverse relation between tea consumption and ischemic heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74(2)227-232.
  • Aviram M. Review of human studies on oxidative damage and antioxidant protection related to cardiovascular disease. Free Radical Research 2000;33:(S85-97).
  • Blumenthal M. ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs. New York (NY): Theime; 2003.
  • Bonkovsky HL. Hepatotoxicity associated with supplements containing Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis). Annals of Internal Medicine 2006;144(1):68-71.
  • Booth SL, Madabushi HT, Davidson KW, Sadowski JA. Tea and coffee brews are not dietary sources of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone). Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1995;95(1):82-83.
  • Borchardt RT, Huber JA. Catechol O-methyltransferase. Structure-activity relationships for inhibition by flavonoids. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 1975;18(1):120-122.
  • Brinker F. Online Updates and Additions to Herb Contraindications & Drug Interactions. 3e édition. [Internet]. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 2008. [Consulté le 3 avril 2012]. Disponible à : http://www.eclecticherb.com/emp/updatesHCDI.html.
  • Brinker F. Herb Contraindications & Drug Interactions, 3e édition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 2001.
  • Cabrera C, Artacho R, Gimenez R. Beneficial effects of green tea--a review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2006;25(2):79-99.
  • Cherubini A, Beal MF, Frei B. Black tea increases the resistance of human plasma to lipid peroxidation in vitro, but not ex vivo. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1999;27(3-4):381-387.
  • Chiu AE, Chan JL, Kern DG, Kohler S, Rehmus WE, Kimball AB. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of green tea extracts in the clinical and histologic appearance of photoaging skin. Dermatologic Surgery 2005;31(7 Pt 2):855-860.
  • Chow S, Hakim I, Vining D, Crowell J, Ranger-Moore J, Chew W, Celaya C, Rodney S, Hara Y, Alberts D. Effects of dosing condition on the oral bioavailability of green tea catechins after single-dose administration of Polyphenone E in healthy individuals. Clinical Cancer Research 2005;11:4627-4633.
  • Christopher G, Sutherland D, Smith A. Effects of caffeine in non-withdrawn volunteers. Human Psychopharmacology 2005;20(1):47-53.
  • Cnattingius S, Signorello LB, Anneren G, Clausson B, Ekbom A, Ljunger E, Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Petersson G, Rane A, Granath F. Caffeine intake and the risk of first-trimester spontaneous abortion. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;343(25):1839-1845.
  • Dashwood WM, Orner GA, Dashwood RH. Inhibition of beta-catenin/Tcf activity by white tea, green tea, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): minor contribution of H(2)O(2) at physiologically relevant EGCG concentrations. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2002;296(3):584-588.
  • Diepvens K, Kovacs EM, Nijs IM, Vogels N, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effect of green tea on resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during weight loss in overweight females. British Journal of Nutrition 2005;94(6):1026-1034.
  • Diepvens K, Kovacs EM, Vogels N, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Metabolic effects of green tea and of phases of weight loss. Physiology & Behaviour 2006;87(1):185-191.
  • Doherty M, Smith PM. Effects of caffeine ingestion on rating of perceived exertion during and after exercise: a meta-analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2005;15(2):69-78.
  • Duffy SJ, Keaney JF Jr, Holbrook M, Gokce N, Swerdloff PL, Frei B, Vita JA. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 2001;104(2):151-156.
  • Dulloo AG. A sympathetic defense against obesity. Science 2002;297(5582):780-781.
  • Dulloo AG, Seydoux J, Girardier L, Chantre P, Vandermander J. Green tea and thermogenesis: interactions between catechin-polyphenols, caffeine and sympathetic activity. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders 2000;24(2):252-258.
  • Erba D, Riso P, Bordoni A, Foti P, Biagi PL, Testolin G. Effectiveness of moderate green tea consumption on antioxidative status and plasma lipid profile in humans. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2005;16(3):144-149.
  • Erba D, Riso P, Foti P, Frigerio F, Criscuoli F, Testolin G. Black tea extract supplementation decreases oxidative damage in Jurkat T cells. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 2003;416(2):196-201.
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 1, 18e édition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications [Réimpression de la publication de 1898]. 1983.
  • Freese R, Basu S, Hietanen E, Nair J, Nakachi K, Bartsch H, Mutanen M. Green tea extract decreases plasma malondialdehyde concentration but does not affect other indicators of oxidative stress, nitric oxide production, or hemostatic factors during a high-linoleic acid diet in healthy females. European Journal of Nutrition 1999;38(3):149-157.
  • FSA 2004: Food Standards Agency. Survey of Caffeine Levels in Hot Beverages. London (GB): Food Standards Agency, Food Survey Information Sheet 53/04, April 29, 2004. [Consulté le 8 novembre 2017]. Disponible à : http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20101209121951/http://www.food.gov.uk/science/sur veillance/fsis2004branch/fsis5304.
  • Gardner EJ, Ruxton CH, Leeds AR. Black tea - helpful or harmful? A review of the evidence. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;61(1):3-18.
  • Geleijnse JM, Launer LJ, Hofman A, Pols HA, Witteman JC. Tea flavonoids may protect against atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 1999;159(18):2170-2174.
  • Gomikawa S, Ishikawa Y. Effects of catechins and ground green tea drinking on the susceptibility of plasma and LDL to oxidation in vitro and ex vivo. Journal of Clinical and Biochemical Nutrition 2002;32:55-68.
  • Graham HN. Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry. Preventive Medicine 1992;21(3):334-350.
  • Greden JF. Anxiety or caffeinism: a diagnostic dilemma. American Journal of Psychiatry 1974;131(10):1089-1092.
  • Grieve M. A Modern Herbal, Volume 2. New York (NY): Dover Publications; 1971 [Réimpression de la publication de 1931 Harcourt, Brace & Company].
  • Hakim IA, Alsaif MA, Alduwaihy M, Al-Rubeaan K, Al-Nuaim AR, Al-Attas OS. Tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease in Saudi adults: results from a Saudi national study. Preventive Medicine 2003;36(1):64-70.
  • Hakim IA, Harris RB, Chow HH, Dean M, Brown S, Ali IU. Effect of a 4-month tea intervention on oxidative DNA damage among heavy smokers: role of glutathione S-transferase genotypes. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, & Prevention 2004;13(2)242-249.
  • Halder J, Bhaduri AN. Protective role of black tea against oxidative damage of human red blood cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1998;244(3):903-907.
  • Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, Katan MB, Kromhout D. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 1993;342(8878):1007-1011.
  • Hertog MG, Kromhout D, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Fidanza F, Giampaoli S, Jansen A, Menotti A, Nedeljkovic S. Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995;155(4):381-386.
  • Hindmarch I, Rigney U, Stanley N, Quinlan P, Rycroft J, Lane J. A naturalistic investigation of the effects of day-long consumption of tea, coffee and water on alertness, sleep onset and sleep quality. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 2000;149(3):203-216.
  • Hirano R, Momiyama Y, Takahashi R, Taniguchi H, Kondo K, Nakamura H, Ohsuzu F. Comparison of green tea intake in Japanese patients with and without angiographic coronary artery disease. The American Journal of Cardiology 2002;90(10):1150-1153.
  • Hodgson JM, Croft KD, Mori TA, Burke V, Beilin LJ, Puddey IB. Regular ingestion of tea does not inhibit in vivo lipid peroxidation in humans. The Journal of Nutrition 2002;132(1):55-58.
  • Hodgson JM, Puddey JB, Burke V, Beilin LJ, Jordan N. Effects on blood pressure of drinking green and black tea. Journal of Hypertension 1999;17(4):457-463.
  • Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Croft KD, Burke V, Mori TA, Caccetta RA, Beilin LJ. Acute effects of ingestion of black and green tea on lipoprotein oxidation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;71(5):1103-1107.
  • Holbrook AM, Pereira JA, Labiris R, McDonald H, Douketis JD, Crowther M, Wells PS. Systematic overview of Warfarin and its drug and food interactions. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005;23:165(10):1095-1106.
  • Hurrell RF, Reddy M, Cook JD. Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. British Journal of Nutrition 1999;81(4):289-295.
  • Imai K, Nakachi K. Cross sectional study of effects of drinking green tea on cardiovascular and liver diseases. British Medical Journal 1995;310(6981):693-696.
  • Ishikawa T, Suzukawa M, Ito T, Yoshida H, Ayaori M, Nishiwaki M, Yonemura A, Hara Y, Nakamura H. (Abstract only) Effect of tea flavonoid supplementation on the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidative modification. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;66(2):261-266.
  • Javaid A, Bonkovsky HL. Hepatotoxicity due to extracts of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis): a growing concern. Journal of Hepatology 2006;45(2):334-335.
  • Jimenez-Saenz M, Martinez-Sanchez MC. Acute hepatitis associated with the use of green tea infusions. Journal of Hepatology 2006;44(3):616-617.
  • Kamimori GH, Penetar DM, Headley DB, Thorne DR, Otterstetter R, Belenky G. Effect of three caffeine doses on plasma catecholamines and alertness during prolonged wakefulness. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2000;56(8):537-544.
  • Kim W, Jeong MH, Cho SH, Yun JH, Chae HJ, Ahn YK, Lee MC, Cheng X, Kondo T, Murohara T, Kang JC. Effect of green tea consumption on endothelial function and circulating endothelial progenitor cells in chronic smokers. Circulation Journal 2006;70(8):1052-1057.
  • Kono S, Shinchi K, Ikeda N, Yanai F, Imanshi K. Green tea consumption and serum lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study in northern Kyushu, Japan. Preventive Medicine 1992;21(4):526-531.
  • Kovacs EM, Lejeune MP, Nijs I, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. British Journal of Nutrition 2004;91(3):431-437.
  • Kuriyama S, Shimazu T, Ohmori K, Kikuchi N, Nakaya N, Nishino Y, Tsubono Y, Tsuji I. Green tea consumption and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in Japan. The Journal of the American Medical Association 2006;296(10):1255-1265.
  • Kyle JA, Morrice PC, McNeill G, Duthie GG. Effects of infusion time and addition of milk on content and absorption of polyphenols from black tea. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 2007;55(12):4889-4894.
  • Langley-Evans SC. Consumption of black tea elicits an increase in plasma antioxidant potential in humans. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 2000;51(5):309-315.
  • Lee W, Min W, Chun S, Lee Y, Park H, Lee DH, Lee YK, Son JE. Long-term effects of green tea ingestion on atherosclerotic biological markers in smokers. Clinical Biochemistry 2005;38(1):84-87.
  • Leenen R, Roodenburg AJ, Tijburg LB, Wiseman SA. A single dose of tea with or without milk increases plasma antioxidant activity in humans. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;54(1):87-92.
  • Leung LK, Su Y, Chen R, Zhang Z, Huang Y, Chen ZY. Theaflavins in Black Tea and Catechins in Green Tea Are Equally Effective Antioxidants. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131:2248-2251.
  • Liang H, Liang Y, Dong J, Lu J, Xu H, Wang H. Decaffeination of fresh green tea leaf (Camellia sinesis) by hot water treatment. Food Chemistry 101 2007:1451-1456.
  • Liu HS, Chen YH, Hung PF, Kao YH. Inhibitory effect of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on resistin gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes depends on the ERK pathway. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 2006;290(2):E273-281.
  • Łuczaj W, Skrzydlewska E. Antioxidative properties of black tea. Preventative Medicine 2005;40(6):910-918.
  • Maity S, Ukil A, Karmakar S, Datta N, Chaudhuri T, Vedasiromoni JR, Ganguly DK, Das PK. Thearubigin, the major polyphenol of black tea, ameliorates mucosal injury in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. European Journal of Pharmacology 2003;30:470(1-2):103-112.
  • McAnlis GT, McEneny J, Pearce J, Young IS. (Abstract only) Black tea consumption does not protect low density lipoprotein from oxidative modification. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;52(3):202-206.
  • McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, éditeurs. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 1997.
  • Mennen L, Hirvonen T, Arnault N, Bertrais S, Galan P, Hercberg S. Consumption of black, green and herbal tea and iron status in French adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007; Epub ahead of print.
  • Miller NJ, Castelluccio C, Tijburg L, Rice-Evans C. The antioxidant properties of theaflavins and their gallate esters - radical scavengers or metal chelators? FEBS Letters 1996;392(1):40-44.
  • Mukamal KJ, Alert M, Maclure M, Muller JE, Mittleman MA. Tea consumption and infarct-related ventricular arrhythmias : the determinants of myocardial infarction onset study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2006;25(6):472-479.
  • Mukamal KJ, Maclure M, Muller JE, Sherwood JB, Mittleman MA. Tea consumption and mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 2002;105(21):2476-2481.
  • Nagaya N, Yamamoto H, Uematsu M, Itoh T, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T, Kangawa K, Miyatake K. Green tea reverses endothelial dysfunction in healthy smokers. Heart 2004;90(12):1485-1486.
  • Nakachi K, Eguchi H, Imai K. Can teatime increase one's lifetime? Ageing Research Reviews 2003;2(1):1-10.
  • Nakachi K, Matsuyama S, Miyake S, Suganuma M, Imai K.Preventive effects of drinking green tea on cancer and cardiovascular disease: epidemiological evidence for multiple targeting prevention. Biofactors 2000;13(1-4):49-54.
  • Nawrot P, Jordan S, Eastwood J, Rotstein J, Hugenholtz A, Feeley M. Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Additives and Contaminants 2003;20(1):1-30.
  • Perva-Uzunalić A, Škerget M, Knez Ž, Weinrich B, Otto F, Grüner S. Extraction of active ingredients from green tea (Camellia sinesis): Extraction efficiency of major catechins and caffeine. Food Chemistry 2006;96(4):597-605.
  • Peters U, Poole C, Arab L. Does tea affect cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology 2001;154(6):495-503.
  • Philip P, Taillard J, Moore N, Delord S, Valtat C, Sagaspe P, Bioulac B. The effects of coffee and napping on night time highway driving: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2006;144(11):785-791.
  • Princen HMG, van Duyvenvoorde W, Buytenhek R, Blonk C, Tijburg, LB, Languis JA, Meinders E, Pijl H. No effect of consumption of green and black tea on plasma lipid and antioxidant levels and on LDL oxidation in smokers. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 1998;18(5):833-841.
  • Quinlan PT, Lane J, Moore KL, Aspen J, Rycroft JA, O'Brien DC. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 2000;66(1):19-28.
  • Ravussin E, Bogardus C. A brief overview of human energy metabolism and its relationship to essential obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992;55(1S):242S-245S.
  • Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Anderson TE, Christin L, Bogardus C. Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man: methods and results using a respiratory chamber. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 1986;78(6):1568-1578.
  • Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Knowler WC, Christin L, Freymond D, Abbott WG, Boyce V, Howard BV, Bogardus C. Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body-weight gain. The New England Journal of Medicine 1988;318(8):467-472.
  • Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavanoids and phenolic acids. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 1996;20(7):933-956.
  • Sano J, Inami S, Seimiya K, Ohba T, Sakai S, Takano T, Mizuno K. Effects of green tea intake on the development of coronary artery disease. Circulation Journal 2004;68(7):665-670.
  • Santana-Rios G, Orner GA, Amantana A, Provost C, Wu SY, Dashwood RH. Potent antimutagenic activity of white tea in comparison with green tea in the Salmonella assay. Mutation Research 2001;495(1-2):61-74.
  • Sasazuki S, Kodama H, Yoshimasu K, Liu Y, Washio M, Tanaka K, Tokunaga S, Kono S, Arai H, Doi Y, Kawano T, Nakagaki O, Takada K, Koyanagi S, Hiyamatu K, Nii T, Shirai K, Ideishi M, Arakawa K, Mohri M, Takeshita A. Relation between green tea consumption and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis among Japanese men and women. Annals of Epidemiology 2000;10(6):401-408.
  • Sawynok J. Pharmacological rationale for the clinical use of caffeine. Drugs 1995;49(1):37-50.
  • Serafini M, Ghiselli A, Luzzi AF. In vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in man. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996;50(1):28-32.
  • Serafini M, Laranjinha JAN, Almeida LM, Maiani G. Inhibition of human LDL lipid peroxidation by phenol-rich beverages and their impact on plasma total antioxidant capacity in humans.The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2000;11(11-12):585-590.
  • Sesso HD, Paffenbarger RS, Oguma Y, Lee IM. Lack of association between tea and cardiovascular disease in college alumni. International Journal of Epidemiology 2003;32(4):527-533.
  • Shiraki M, Hara Y, Osawa T, Kumon H, Nakayama T, Kawakishi S. (Abstract only) Antioxidative and antimutagenic effects of theaflavins from black tea. Mutation Research 1994;323(1-2):29-34.
  • Shixian Q, VanCrey B, Shi J, Kakuda Y, Jiang Y. Green tea extract thermogenesis-induced weight loss by epigallocatechin gallate inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase. Journal of Medicinal Food 2006;9(4):451-458.
  • Smith A, Sutherland D, Christopher G. Effects of repeated doses of caffeine on mood and performance of alert and fatigued volunteers. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2005;19(6):620-626.
  • Steptoe A, Gibson EL, Vounonvirta R, Williams ED, Hamer M, Rycroft JA, Erusalimsky JD, Wardle J. The effects of tea on psychophysiological stress responsivity and post-stress recovery: a randomised double-blind trial. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 2007;190(1):81-89.
  • Steptoe A, Wardle J. Mood and drinking: a naturalistic diary study of alcohol, coffee and tea. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 1999;141(3):315-321.
  • Stevens T, Qadri A, Zein NN. Two patients with acute liver injury associated with use of the herbal weight-loss supplement hydroxycut. Annals of Internal Medicine 2005;142(6):477-478.
  • Sung H, Min WK, Lee W, Chun S, Park H, Lee YW, Jang S, Lee DH. The effects of green tea ingestion over four weeks on atherosclerotic markers. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 2005;42(4):292-297.
  • Sung H, Nah J, Chun S, Park H, Yang SE, Min WK. In vivo antioxidant effect of green tea. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;54(7):527-529.
  • Taylor JR, Wilt VM. Probable antagonism of Warfarin by green tea. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1999;33:426-428.
  • Temme EH, Van Hoydonck PG. Tea consumption and iron status. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;56(5):379-386.
  • Thrift AG, Donnan GA. Re: "Does tea affect cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis." (Letter). American Journal of Epidemiology 2002;156(5):490.
  • Tokunaga S, White IR, Frost C, Tanaka K, Kono S, Tokudome S, Akamatsu T, Moriyama T, Zakouji H. Green tea consumption and serum lipids and lipoproteins in a population of healthy workers in Japan. Annals of Epidemiology 2002;12(3):157-165.
  • Tsubono Y, Tsugane S. Green tea intake in relation to serum lipid levels in middle-aged Japanese men and women. Annals of Epidemiology 1997;7(4):280-284.
  • Unno T, Tago M, Suzuki Y, Nozawa A, Sagesaka YM, Kakuda T, Egawa K, Kondo K. Effect of tea catechins on postprandial plasma lipid responses in human subjects. British Journal of Nutrition 2005;93(4):543-547.
  • Van Gaal LF, Mertens IL, De Blcok CE. Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease. Nature 2006;444(7121):875-880.
  • Warden BA, Smith LS, Beecher GR, Balentine DA, Clevidence BA. Catechins are bioavailable in men and women drinking black tea throughout the day. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131(6):1731-1737.
  • Westerterp-Plantenga M, Diepvens K, Joosen AM, Bérubé-Parent S, Tremblay A. Metabolic effects of spices, teas, and caffeine. Physiology & Behaviour 2006;89(1):85-91.
  • Wichtl M, éditeur. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 3e édition. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2004.
  • Williamson EM, Evans FJ, Wren RC. Potter's New Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. Essex (UK): C.W. Daniel Company Limited; 1988.
  • Woodward M, Tunstall-Pedoe H. Coffee and tea consumption in the Scottish Heart Health Study follow-up: conflicting relations with coronary risk factors, coronary disease, and all cause mortality. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1999;53(8):481-487.
  • Wren RC. Potter's Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs & Preparations. London (UK): Potter and Clark; 1907.
  • Yang Y, Lu F, Wu J, Wu C, Chang C. The protective effect of habitual tea consumption on hypertension. Archives of Internal Medicine 2004;164(14):1534-1540.
  • Ye J, Liang Y, Jin J, Liang H, Du Y, Lu J, Ye Q, Lin C. Preparation of Partially Decaffeinated Instant Green Tea. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 2007;55:3498-3502.
  • Young JF, Dragstedt LO, Haraldsdottir J, Daneshvar B, Kal MA, Loft S, Nilsson L, Nielsen SE, Mayer B, Skibsted LH, Huynh-Ba T, Hermetter A, Sandstrom B. Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet. British Journal of Nutrition 2002;87(4):343-355.
  • Zwyghuizen-Doorenbos A, Roehrs TA, Lipschutz L, Timms V, Roth T. Effects of caffeine on alertness. Psychopharmacology 1990;100(1):36-39.