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This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLAs) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient.


  • Text in parentheses is additional optional information which can be included on the PLA and product label at the applicant's discretion.
  • The solidus (/) indicates that the terms and/or statements are synonymous. Either term or statement may be selected by the applicant.


October 30, 2018

Proper name(s), Common name(s), Source material(s)

Table 1. Proper name(s), Common name(s), Source material(s)
Proper name(s) Common name(s) Source material(s)
Proper name(s) Part(s) Preparation

Zingiber officinale

  • Ginger
  • Jiang

Zingiber officinale



References: Proper name: USDA 2018; Common names: McGuffin et al. 2000, Wiersema and Leˇn 1999; Source material: McGuffin et al. 2000, WHO 1999, Bradley 1992.

Route of Administration


Dosage Form(s)

This monograph excludes foods or food-like dosage forms as indicated in the Compendium of Monographs Guidance Document.

Acceptable dosage forms for the age category listed in this monograph and specified route of administration are indicated in the Compendium of Monographs Guidance Document.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

  • Help(s) prevent nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, and/or seasickness (Lien et al. 2003; Riebenfeld and Borzone 1999; Schmid et al. 1994; Fischer-Rasmussen et al. 1990; Gr°ntved et al. 1988; Mowrey and Clayson 1982).
  • Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine to help relieve digestive upset including lack of appetite, nausea, digestive spasms, indigestion, dyspepsia, and flatulent colic (carminative) (Mills and Bone 2000; Bradley 1992; Ellingwood 1983; Felter and Lloyd 1983).
  • Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine as an expectorant and cough suppressant (antitussive) to help relieve bronchitis as well as coughs and colds (Mills and Bone 2000; Bradley 1992; Ellingwood 1983 ; Wren 1907).


Claims for traditional use must include the term "Herbal Medicine", "Traditional Chinese Medicine", or "Ayurveda".



Children 6-11 years, Adolescents 12-17 years and Adults 18 years and older (ESCOP 2003)


Methods of preparation: Dry, Powder, Non-Standardised Extracts (Dry extract, Tincture, Fluid extract, Decoction, Infusion)

Motion sickness/seasickness (nausea and vomiting prevention)

0.5-2 grams of dried rhizome, per day (Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003; Bradley 1992)

Other uses

0.3-3 grams of dried rhizome, per day (Mills and Bone 2005; Bradley 1992; Felter and Lloyd 1898; Wren 1907)

Direction(s) for use

Motion sickness/seasickness (nausea and vomiting prevention)

Take a single dose 30 minutes before travel (Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003)(Optional: and every 4 hours as necessary (Riebenfeld and Borzone 1999; Schmid et al. 1994).

Duration(s) of Use

No statement required.

Risk Information

Caution(s) and warning(s)

Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/physician if symptoms persist or worsen.


No statement required.

Known adverse reaction(s)

No statement required.

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database (NHPID) and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Storage conditions

No statement required.


  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate (NNHPD) Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the NHPID.

References Cited

Bradley PR, editor. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 1. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medicine Association; 1992.

Ellingwood F. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 1983 [Reprint of 1919 original].

ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme; 2003.

Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 2, 18th edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 1983 [Reprint of 1898 original].

Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, Asping U. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1990;38:19-24.

Gr°ntved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. Ginger root against seasickness; a controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngology 1988;105:45-49.

Lien HC, Sun WM, Chen YH, Kim H, Hasler W, Owyang C. Effects of ginger on motion sickness and gastric slow-wave dysrhythmias induced by circular vection. American Journal of Physiology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2003;284(3):G481-G489.

McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Silver Spring (MD): American Herbal Products Association; 2000.

Mills S, Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Toronto (ON): Churchill Livingstone; 2000.

Mills S, Bone K. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005.

Mowrey DB, Clayson DE. Motion sickness, ginger, and psychophysics. Lancet 1982;1(8273): 655-657.

Riebenfeld D, Borzone L. Randomized double-blind study comparing ginger (Zintona®) and dimenhydrinate in motion sickness. European Phytotherapy 1999;2(6):98-101.

Schmid R, Schick T, Steffen R, Tschopp A, Wilk T.Comparison of seven commonly used agents for prophylaxis of seasickness. Journal of Travel Medicine 1994;1(4):203-206.

USDA 2018: ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Zingiber officinale Roscoe. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Accessed 2018 August 14]. Available at:

WHO 1999: World Health Organization. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 1. Geneva (CHE): World Health Organization; 1999.

Wiersema JH, Leˇn B. World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press LLC; 1999.

Wren RC. Potter's Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. London (UK): Potter and Clark; 1907.

References Reviewed

Backon J. Ginger as an antiemetic: possible side effects due to its thromboxane synthetase activity. Anaesthesia 1991;46(8):705-706.

Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 1997;56(5):379-84.

Careddu P. Motion sickness in children: Results of a double-blind study with ginger (ZintonaR) and dimenhydrinate. European Phytotherapy 1999;6(2):102-7.

Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, Ammit AJ, Roufogalis BD, Duke CC, Day RO, McLachlan AJ. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2005;59(4):425-32.

KrŘth P, Brosi E, Fux R, M÷rike K, Gleiter CH. Ginger-associated overanticoagulation by phenprocoumon. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2004;38(2):257-260.

Lumb AB. Effect of dried ginger on human platelet function. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1994;71(1):110-111.

Srivastava KC. Effects of onion and ginger consumption on platelet thromboxane production in humans. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 1989; 35(3):183-185.