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Drugs and Health Products

Garlic - ALLIUM SATIVUM

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This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLAs) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient.

Notes
  • Text in parentheses is additional optional information which can be included on the PLA and product label at the applicant's discretion.
  • The solidus (/) indicates that the terms and/or the statements are synonymous. Either term or statement may be selected by the applicant.

Date

July 31, 2018

Proper name(s), Common name(s), Source material(s)

Table 1. Garlic bulb: Proper name(s), Common name(s), Source material(s)
Proper name(s) Common name(s) Source material(s)
Proper name(s) Part(s)
Allium sativum Garlic Allium sativum Bulb

References: Proper name: USDA 2018; Common name: McGuffin et al. 2000; Source material: ESCOP 2003, Bradley 1992.

Essential oil:

Table 2. Garlic essential oil: Proper name(s), Common name(s), Source material(s)
Proper name(s) Common name(s) Source material(s)
Proper name(s) Part(s)
Allium sativum Garlic essential oil Allium sativum Bulb

References: Proper name: USDA 2018; Source material: ESCOP 2003, Bradley 1992.

Route of administration

Oral

Dosage form(s)

This monograph excludes foods or food-like dosage forms as indicated in the Compendium of Monographs Guidance Document.

Acceptable dosage forms by age group:

Children 2 years: The acceptable dosage forms are limited to emulsion/suspension and solution/ liquid preparations (Giacoia et al. 2008; EMEA/CHMP 2006).

Children 3-5 years: The acceptable dosage forms are limited to chewables, emulsion/ suspension, powders and solution/liquid preparations (Giacoia et al. 2008; EMEA/CHMP 2006).

Children 6-11 years, Adolescents 12-17 years, and Adults 18 years and older: The acceptable dosage forms for this age category and specified route of administration are indicated in the Compendium of Monographs Guidance Document.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

  • Traditionally used in Herbal Medicine to help relieve the symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections and catarrhal conditions (such as nasal congestion/buildup of excess mucuous) (Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003; Bradley 1992; Felter and Lloyd 1983).
  • Used in Herbal Medicine to help reduce elevated blood lipid levels (hyperlipidaemia) in adults (Kojuri et al. 2007; Macan et al. 2006; Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003; Kannar et al. 2001; Blumenthal et al. 2000; Bradley 1992).
  • Used in Herbal Medicine to help maintain cardiovascular health in adults (Kojuri et al. 2007; Macan et al. 2006; Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003; Kannar et al. 2001; Blumenthal et al. 2000; Bradley 1992).

The following combined use(s) or purpose(s) is/are also acceptable:

  • Used in Herbal Medicine to help reduce elevated blood lipid levels (hyperlipidemia) and maintain cardiovascular health in adults (Kojuri et al. 2007; Macan et al. 2006; Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003; Kannar et al. 2001; Blumenthal et al. 2000; Bradley 1992).

Notes
Claims for traditional use must include the term ?Herbal Medicine?, ?Traditional Chinese Medicine?, or ?Ayurveda?.

Dose(s)

Subpopulation(s)

As specified below

Quantity(ies)

Methods of preparation: Dry, Powder, Non-Standardized Extracts (Dry extract, Tincture, Fluid extract, Decoction, Infusion)

Table 3. Dose information for garlic bulb presented as dose per day
Subpopulation(s)1,2,3 Garlic bulb (g/day)
Minimum Maximum
Children
2-4 years 0.08 2
5-9 years 0.1 3
10-11 years 0.2 6
Adolescents
12-14 years 0.2 6
15-17 years 0.5 12
Adults 18 years and above 0.512

1 Children and adolescent doses were calculated as a proportion of the adult dose (JC 2008). The use of garlic in children is supported by the following references: McIntyre 2005; Bove 2001; Schilcher 1997.
2 Adult dose supported by the following references: Kojuri et al. 2007; Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003; Kannar et al. 2001; Blumenthal et al. 2000; Bradley 1992.
3Includes breastfeeding women

Methods of preparation: Standardized extracts (Dry extract, Tincture, Fluid extract, Decoction, Infusion)

Table 4. Dose information for allicin and alliin presented as dose per day
Subpopulation(s)1,2,3 Minimum (mg/day) Maximum (mg/day)
Allicin Alliin Allicin Allin
Children
2-4 years 0.17 0.324.5
5-9 years 0.25 0.537
10-11 years 0.5 1614
Adolescents
12-14 years 0.5 1614
15-17 years 1 21227
Adults18 years and above 1 21227

1 Children and adolescent doses were calculated as a proportion of the adult dose (JC 2008). The use of garlic in children is supported by the following references: McIntyre 2005; Bove 2001; Schilcher 1997.
2Adult dose for allicin supported by the following references: Kojuri et al. 2007; Mills and Bone 2005; ESCOP 2003; Kannar et al. 2001; Bradley 1992. Adult dose for alliin calculated based on the conversion ratio of 0.45 mg allicin: 1 mg alliin (ESCOP 2003).
3Includes breastfeeding women

Methods of preparation: Oil, Essential (water steam distillation)

Table 5. Dose information for garlic essential oil presented as dose per day
Subpopulation(s) Garlic essentiel oil (mg/day)
Minimum Maximum
Adults1,2 18 years and above 2 5

1Adult dose supported by the following reference: Bradley 1992.
2Includes breastfeeding women

Direction(s) of use

No statement required

Duration (s) of use

No statement required.

Risk information

Caution(s) and warning(s)

For relief of upper respiratory tract infections and catarrhal (nasal congestion) conditions

Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen.

For all uses

  • Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/physician prior to use if you are taking blood thinners or protease inhibitors (Brinker 2018; Mills and Bone 2005).
  • Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/physician prior to use if you are pregnant or have diabetes (Brinker 2018; Mills and Bone 2005).

Contraindication(s)

No statement required.

Known adverse reaction(s)

Stop use if hypersensitivity/allergy occurs (Brinker 2018; Mills and Bone 2005).

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database (NHPID) and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Storage conditions

No statement required.

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate (NNHPD) Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the NHPID.

References cited

  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinkmann J, editors. 2000. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications.
  • Bove M. 2001. An Encyclopedia of Natural Healing for Children & Infants, 2nd edition. Toronto (ON): McGraw-Hill.
  • Bradley PR, editor. 1992. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 1. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medicine Association.
  • Brinker F. 2018. Online Updates and Additions to Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 4thedition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications. [Accessed 2018 June 1]. Available from: https://www.eclecticherb.com/herb-contraindications-drug-interactions/
  • EMEA/CHMP 2006: European Medicines Agency: Pre-authorization Evaluation of Medicines for Human Use. Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. Reflection Paper: Formulations of choice for the paediatric population. [Accessed 2018 June 1]. Available from: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Scientific_guideline/2009/09/WC500003782.pdf"
  • ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2nd edition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme.
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. 1983. King's American Dispensatory, Volume 1, 18th edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications [Reprint of 1898 original].
  • Giacoia GP, Taylor-Zapata P, Mattison D. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Pediatric Formulation Initiative: selected reports from working groups. Clinical Therapeutics 2008; 30(11):2097-2101.
  • JC 2008: Justice Canada. Food and Drug Regulations C.01.021. [online]. Ottawa (ON): Justice Canada. [Accessed 2018 June 1]. Available from: http://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/c.r.c.,_c._870/page-110.html#h-156
  • Kannar D, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Savige G, Wahlqvist M. 2001. Hypocholesterolemic effect of an enteric-coated garlic supplement. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 20(3):225-231.
  • Kojuri J, Vosoughi A, Akrami M. 2007. Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients. Lipids in Health and Disease 6(5):1476-1511.
  • Macan H, Uykimpang R, Alconel M, Takasu J, Razon R, Amagase H, Niihara Y. 2006. Significance of garlic and its constituents in cancer and cardiovascular disease: aged garlic extract may be safe for patients on warfarin therapy. Journal of Nutrition 136:793S-795S.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Silver Spring (MD): American Herbal Products Association.
  • McIntyre A. 2005. Herbal Treatment of Children - Western and Ayurvedic Perspectives. Toronto (ON): Elsevier Limited.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
  • Schilcher H. 1997. Phytotherapy in Paediatrics: Handbook for Physicians and Pharmacists. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm Scientific Publishers.
  • USDA 2018: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) [online database]. Allium sativum L. Beltsville (MD): National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. [Accessed 2018 June 1]. Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

References reviewed