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Drugs and Health Products

AMLA - PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA

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This monograph is intended to serve as a guide to industry for the preparation of Product Licence Applications (PLAs) and labels for natural health product market authorization. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the medicinal ingredient.

Notes

  • Text in parentheses is additional optional information which can be included on the PLA and product label at the applicant's discretion.
  • The solidus (/) indicates that the terms and/or statements are synonymous. Either term or statement may be selected by the applicant.

Date

December 18, 2018

Proper name(s), Common name(s), Source material(s)

Table 1. Proper name(s), Common name(s), Source material(s)
Proper name(s) Common name(s) Source material(s)
Proper name(s) Part(s) Preparation

Phyllanthus emblica

  • Amalaki
  • Amla
  • Emblic
  • Emblic myrobalan
  • Indian-gooseberry
  • Myrobalan

Phyllanthus emblica

Fruit

Dried

References: Proper name: USDA 2018, McGuffin et al. 2000; Common names: ITIS 2018, USDA 2018, Martindale 2011, API 2001, McGuffin et al. 2000; Source material: API 2001, Khory and Katrak 1999.

Route of Administration

Oral

Dosage Form(s)

This monograph excludes foods or food-like dosage forms as indicated in the Compendium of Monographs Guidance Document.

Acceptable dosage forms for the age category listed in this monograph and specified route of administration are indicated in the Compendium of Monographs Guidance Document.

Use(s) or Purpose(s)

  • Source of/Provides antioxidants (Duke 2018; Paranjpe 2005; Williamson 2002; API 2001; Kapoor 2001).
  • Traditionally used in Ayurveda as Rasayana (rejuvenative tonic) (Sudarshan 2005; Murthy 2004; Kapoor 2001; Gogte 2000).
  • Traditionally used in Ayurveda to help relieve symptoms such as heartburn and indigestion associated with Amlapitta (hyperacidity/dyspepsia) (Warrier et al. 2003; API 2001; Gogte 2000).
  • Traditionally used in Ayurveda as a digestive tonic to increase appetite and aid in digestion (stomachic) (Paranjpe 2005; Sidarshan 2005; Warrier et al. 2003; Kapoor 2001; Gogte 2000; Khory and Katrak 1999).
  • Traditionally used in Ayurveda as a laxative for the relief of occasional constipation (Paranjpe 2005; Sudarshan 2005; Warrier et al. 2003; Kapoor 2001; Gogte 2000; Khory and Katrak 1999).

Note

Claims for traditional use must include the term "Herbal Medicine", "Traditional Chinese Medicine", or "Ayurveda".

Dose(s)

Subpopulation(s)

Adults 18 years and older

Quantity(ies)

Methods of preparation: Dry, Powder, Non-Standardised Ethanolic Extracts (Dry extract, Tincture, Fluid extract)

Antioxidant

Not to exceed 6 grams of dried fruit, per day (Williamson 2002; API 2001; Kapoor 2001; Gogte 2000).

Amlapitta, Digestive tonic, Laxative, or Rasayana

3-6 grams of dried fruit, per day (Williamson 2002; API 2001; Kapoor 2001; Gogte 2000).

Direction(s) for use

All products

Take 2 hours before or after taking other medications (HC 2009; Martindale 2008).

Laxative

Allow at least 6 to 12 hours for laxative effect to occur (APhA 2002).

Duration(s) of Use

Laxative

Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/physician for use beyond 7 days (HC 2009; Pray 2006; CPhA 2002).

Risk Information

Caution(s) and warning(s)

All products

  • Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/ physician prior to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/ physician if you have or develop abdominal pain, nausea, fever or vomiting (HC 2009; McGuffin et al. 1997).

Amlapitta, Digestive tonic or Laxative

Consult a health care practitioner/health care provider/health care professional/doctor/physician if symptoms persist or worsen.

Contraindication(s)

No statement required.

Known adverse reaction(s)

Amlapitta, Antioxidant, Digestive tonic, or Rasayana

Stop use if laxative effect occurs.

Non-medicinal ingredients

Must be chosen from the current Natural Health Products Ingredients Database (NHPID) and must meet the limitations outlined in the database.

Storage conditions

No statement required.

Specifications

  • The finished product specifications must be established in accordance with the requirements described in the Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate (NNHPD) Quality of Natural Health Products Guide.
  • The medicinal ingredient must comply with the requirements outlined in the NHPID.

References Cited

API 2001: The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, 1st edition, Part I, Volume I. Delhi (IN): The Controller of Publications; 2001[Reprint of 1990 publication].

APhA 2002: Berardi RR, DeSimone EM, Newton GD, Oszko, MA, Popovich, NG, Rollins, CJ, Shimp LA, Tietze KJ. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An Interactive Approach to SelfCare. 13th Edition. Washington (DC): American Pharmaceutical Association; 2002.

CPhA 2002: Repchinsky C, editor-in-chief. Patient Self-Care: Helping Patients Make Therapeutic Choices. 1st edition. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Pharmacists Association; 2002.

Duke 2018: Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae) -- Emblic, Myrobalan, 1992 [Internet]. [Accessed 2018 September 19]. Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke

Gogte VVM. Ayurvedic Pharmacology and Therapeutic Uses of Medicinal Plants. Mubai (IN): Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan; 2000.

HC 2009: Laxatives: General - Laxatives - Labelling Standard [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Drugs and Health Products; Health Canada; 2009. [Accessed 2018 September 19]. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/drugs-health-products/drug-products/applications-submissions/guidance-documents/nonprescription-drugs-labelling-standards/laxatives-labelling-standards-non-prescription-drugs.html

ITIS 2018: Phyllanthus emblica [2011] Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) [Internet]. [Accessed 2018 Septemeber 19]. Available from: http://www.itis.gov

Kapoor LD. Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. Baton Roca (FL): CRC Press LLC; 2001.

Khory RN, Katrak NN. Materia Medica of India and their Therapeutics. Delhi (IN): Komal Prakashan; 1999[Reprint of 1903 publication].

Martindale 2011: Sweetman SC, editor. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference [Internet]. London (GB): Pharmaceutical Press; 2012. [Indian gooseberry: latest modification: 05-Dec2011; Accessed 2018 October 2]. Available from: http://www.medicinescomplete.com

Martindale 2008: Sweetman SC, editor. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference [Internet]. (GB): Pharmaceutical Press; 2012. [Laxatives: latest modification: 31-Jul-2008; Accessed 2018 October 2]. Available from: http://www.medicinescomplete.com

McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Silver Spring (MD): American Herbal Products Association; 2000.

McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, editors. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press LLC; 1997.

Murthy KRS. Bhavaprakasa of Bhavamisra. Volume 1. Varanasi (IN): Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2004.

Paranjpe P. Indian Medicinal Plants: Forgotten Healers: A Guide to Ayurvedic Herbal Medicine. Delhi (IN): Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; 2005.

Pray WS. Non-Prescription Product Therapeutics. 2nd edition. New York (NY): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.

Sudarshan SR. Encyclopaedia of Indian Medicine, Materia Medica - Herbal Drugs. Volume 4. Banglore (IN): Popular Prakashan; 2005.

USDA 2018: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). [Internet]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville (MD). [Phyllanthus emblica L. Last updated: 25-Aug-2005; Accessed 2018 September 19]. Available from: https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?28119

Warrier PK, Nambiar VPK, Ramankutty C, editors. Indian Medicinal Plants: a compendium of 500 species. Volume 4. Chennai (IN): Orient Longman Private Limited; 2003.

Williamson EM, editor. Major Herbs of Ayurveda. Edinburgh (GB): Churchill Livingstone; 2002.

References Reviewed

Baliga MS, Dsouza JJ. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 2011;20(3):225-239.

Brinker 2010: Brinker F. Final updates and additions for Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition, including extensive Appendices addressing common problematic conditions, medications and nutritional supplements, and influences on Phase I, II & III metabolism with new appendix on botanicals as complementary adjuncts with drugs. [Internet].Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications. [Updated July 13, 2010; Accessed 2012 April 18]. Available from: http://www.eclecticherb.com/emp/updatesHCDI.html

Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 3rd edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 2001.

Charoenteeraboon J, Ngamkitidechaku C, Soonthornchareonnon N, Jaijoy K, Sireeratowong S. Antioxidant activities of the standardized water extract from fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 2010;32(6):599-604.

Chaudhuri RK. Emblica cascading antioxidant: a novel natural skin care ingredient. Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology 2002;15(5):374-380.

Chen TS, Liou SY, Chang YL. Supplementation of Emblica officinalis (Amla) extract reduces oxidative stress in uremic patients. American Journal of Clinical Medicine 2009;37(1):19-25.

Faccolia S. Cornucopia II A source book of edible plants. Vista (CA): Kampong Publications; 1998.

Health Canada. Canada Vigilance Adverse Reaction Online Database. Ottawa (ON): Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada; 2011. [Accessed 2012 January 27]. Available from: http://webprod3.hc-sc.gc.ca/arquery-rechercheei/index-eng.jsp

Hiraganahalli BD, Chinampudur VC, Dethe S, Mundkinajeddu D, Pandre MK, Balachandran J, Agarwal A. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of standardized herbal extracts. Pharmacognosy Magazine 2012;8(30):116-123.

Jain SK. DeFillips RA. Medicinal Plants of India. Volume 1. Algonac (MI): Reference Publications, Inc; 1991.

Khare CP, editor. Indian Herbal Remedies: Rational Western Therapy, Ayurvedic and Other Traditional Usage, Botany. Berlin (DE): Springer; 2004.

Manjunatha S, Jaryal AK, Bijlani RL, Sachdeva U, Gupta SK. Effect of Chyawanprash and vitamin C on glucose tolerance and lipoprotein profile. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2001;45(1):71-79.

Mills S, Bone K. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005.

Mishra LC, editor. Scientific Basis for Ayurvedia Therapies. Baton Roca (FL): CRC Press LLC; 2004.

Natural Standard. Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica) Copyright 2012 [Internet]. [Accessed 2012 April 18]. Available from: http://www.naturalstandard.com.

Poltanov EA, Shikov AN, Dorman HJD, Pozharitskaya ON, Makarov VG, Tikhonov VP, Hiltunen R. Chemical and Antioxidant Evaluation of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) Supplements. Phytotherapy Research 2009;23:1309-1315.

Premila MS. Ayurvedic herbs: A clinical guide to the healing plants of traditional Indian medicine. New York (NY): The Haworth Press Inc; 2006.

Sabu MC, Kuttan R. Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2002;81(2):155-169.

Sawant L, Pandita N, Prabhakar B. Determination of gallic acid in Phyllanthus emblica Linn. dried fruit powder by HPTLC. Journal of Pharmacy and BioAllied Sciences 2010;2(2):105-108.

Scartezzini P, Speroni E. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2000;71:23-42.